Fact – Inference – Judgment (FIJ’s) questions are consecutively ordered statements created all over a single topic. Each question may or may not contain one sentence of each type. Such questions were a part of CLAT 2015.So, we can expect them in the 2017 as well.


In this article, we will guide you how to solve fact-inference-judgemnet questions so that you wouldn't face any difficulty in the upcoming CLAT 2017.

FIJs (Fact - Inference -Judgment) Questions:

1. Facts

It encompasses bits of Information that one has probably seen, read or heard and, which are open to verification or discovery. The Main word here is verification. A fact is any explanation that can be verified i.e. the fact can either be true or false. Moreover, facts are explanations that may include or incorporate natural phenomenon, dates, and numbers. The features of statements categorized as facts are as follows:-

  • Limited to what one observes, can’t be made regarding future.
  • Restricted number is feasible.
  • A fact doesn’t vary from person to person and is agreed by one and all. Therefore, facts are not perception dependent.
  • Facts have the characteristic of fetching people together in agreement.
  • Made after experience and examination. An event cannot turn into a fact until it has taken place or occurred.


2. Inferences

A deduction drawn about the unknown based on known is called as inference.

  1. Inferences are deductions or conclusions, usually identified by words like therefore, so, hence, as a result, thus etc.
  2. Are results or outcomes
  3. Can be demonstrated in future tense and give a picture of what is likely to happen in future.
  4. There are instances where statements have opinions, nevertheless they deduce to some conclusion
  5. Might begin with the known fact leading to an outcome.

Also read: CLAT- UG 2017 Official Notification


3. Judgements

Judgments’ are assumptions or opinions that imply disapproval or approval of persons, situations, objects, occurrences in present, past or future. There is a small distinction between an Inference and judgment. Mostly, judgements are based on facts and that’s why they look like inferences.

Some points of difference between Judgment and Inference are:-

  1. Judgment statements entail a lot of quantities, that can’t be quantified such as sorrow, sadness etc.
  2. Judgments are very much arguable.
  3. Judgments are recommendations, opinions and suggestions while inferences are conditions that are proven.
  4. A judgment is a true attempt to make rational observations on given facts but such observations does not necessarily prove anything.
  5. Judgments are not followed by facts at all but are only opinion statements. The statement can only be a judgment statement, when there is no fact involved.

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Tips to solve FIJ’s:

1. Start with the facts:

Facts are the easiest of the three types of statements to be determined. To identify facts ask yourself questions like:-

  • Is this statement verifiable?
  • Is this a statistic?

If you find the answer to any one of the questions as yes then it is a fact (Any statement that provides you with instances of statistics is always considered a fact)


2. Use your knowledge of facts for Elimination

For elimination, use your basic knowledge of facts. 


3. Identify the Judgments, if you have more than one choice left

Judgments are the easiest to be identified after the facts. Judgments will have an opinion directly stated on situations, persons or objects. You will find a negative or a positive indication and the author will show approval or disapproval. This type of statement cannot be verified as the data. Sometimes judgments are minute and can rest on one or two words.


4. Before you proceed , ask yourself a question

Put a question to yourself – if the statement contains a personal point of view?


5. Find key-words

Inferences usually includes qualifying language like ‘might’, ‘could’, ’would’. If you come across any confusing Judgments or facts look for the ‘just – mentioned’ keywords.

Must read: Legal Aptitude topics to be prepared for CLAT 2017

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Solved Example for Fact-Inference-Judgement Questions:

  1. Given the poor quality of service in the public sector, the HIV/AIDS affected should be switching to private initiatives that supply anti-retroviral drugs (ARVs) at a low cost.
  2. The government has been supplying free drugs since 2004, and 35000 have benefited up to now œ though the size of the affected population is 150 times this number.
  3. The recent initiatives of networks and companies like AIDS Care Network, Emcure, Reliance-Cipla-CII, would lead to availability of much-needed drugs to a larger number of affected people.
  4. But how ironic it is that we should face a perennial   shortage   of   drugs  when India  is one of  the world‘s largest suppliers of generic drugs to the developing world.

(1)  JFIJ

(2)  JIIJ

(3)  IFIJ

(4)  IFFJ

(5)  JFII



The given options require you to evaluate statement 1 as either a Judgment or an Inference. ‘Given the poor quality of services in the public sector … ’ is more of a judgment than a fact.  Even though "poor quality" of service in public sector is known to us, the same opinion cannot be agreed by everyone.   Even I have seen personally there are some public sector hospitals provide the same world class facilities to poor at no cost.   Based on this the judgment “should be switching….” is also a judgment.  Remember, a conclusion drawn from a fact is an inference, but drawn from a judgment is still a judgment. Statement 1 is a judgment. This eliminates option 3 and 4.

The numbers in statement 2 are a result of direct verification. Hence it is easy to see that statement 2 is a fact. This eliminates option 2.

Evaluating options 1 and 5 both of which say statement 4 is an inference, one has to now establish whether statement 5 is an inference or a judgment (as per the options 1 and 5).

“… How ironic it is...” is neither verified nor verifiable through facts. Statement 4 is a judgment.

Hence, the correct answer is option 1.

Statement 3 is an inference as Initiatives (which is a fact) lead to availability of much-needed drugs to a larger number of affected people. (Which is a judgement)

We hope by now, you must have found some insight on how to solve FIJs.  PrepLadder is taking all the possible initiatives to help the students understand important topics for CLAT 2017.

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