Jun 20, 2022
It's time to upgrade your UPSC knowledge bank with our Daily Dose of Current Affairs. In today's edition of our Current Affairs Dialog box, we will discuss Conflict Over Aegean Sea: Turkey & Greece and find its relevance to the UPSC CSE syllabus.
Read further to enhance your UPSC Exam Preparation.
For Prelims: Current Events of National and International Importance.
For Mains: Bilateral, Regional, and Global Groupings and Agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests.
Turkey has accused Greece of building a military presence in violation of the 1923 Treaty of Lausanne and the 1947 Paris Treaty, which guarantee the Aegean islands' unarmed status.
Also read: The Western Sahara Dispute
Examine the significance of the Montreux Convention in the light of the ongoing conflict between Turkey & Greece over Aegean Sea.
In geological terms, the continental shelf is defined as the seabed and subsoil that is the prolongation of a country’s landmass, extending beyond its territorial sea.
As per the UNCLOS, the continental shelf extends to 200 nautical miles from the country’s coastal baseline but is within its continental margin. A country has sovereign rights over the natural resources in the water and the seabed and soil within its continental shelf.
Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ)EEZ is a zone in which a country has special rights to exploration, use of natural resources, wind and hydro-power generation, and other economic activities like laying of pipelines, fishing and so on. EEZs also extend to 200 nm from the coastline.
|United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS)UNCLOS is an international treaty which was adopted and signed in 1982.|
It replaced the four Geneva Conventions of April, 1958, which respectively concerned the territorial sea and the contiguous zone, the continental shelf, the high seas, fishing and conservation of living resources on the high seas.
It is also known as Law of the Sea.UNCLOS divides marine areas into five main zones which are-Internal Waters
Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) the High Seas
The Convention has become the legal framework for marine and maritime activities.
It provides the backbone for offshore governance by coastal states and those navigating the oceans. It not only zones coastal states’ offshore areas but also provides specific guidance for states’ rights and responsibilities in the five concentric zones.Image Source: The Hindu
|Montreux ConventionThe Montreux Convention was signed in 1936 regarding the Regime of the Straits. |
Under the accord, Turkey has control over the Bosphorus and Dardanelles and the power to regulate the transit of naval warships.
It also guarantees the free passage of civilian vessels in peacetime and restricts the passage of ships not belonging to Black Sea countries. In wartime, Turkey is authorised to close the straits to all foreign warships or when it is threatened by aggression.
It can also refuse transit for merchant ships from countries at war with Turkey and fortify the straits in case of conflict.
All non-Black Sea countries wishing to send vessels must notify Turkey 15 days in advance, while Black Sea nations must give eight days' notification.
Image Source: World Atlas
|Aegean Sea Location: |
The sea is situated between the Anatolia and Balkan peninsulas and lies between Turkey and Greece. Islands in the Aegean Sea: North Aegean Islands, West Aegean Islands, Sporades, Cyclades, Saronic Islands.
The Aegean Sea experiences a Mediterranean climate, experienced in Western Turkey and Greece.
The Bosphorus and Dardanelles Straits connect the Aegean Sea to the Black Sea and the Marmara Sea respectively.
The Aegean is subdivided into the Myrtoan Sea and the Thracian Sea (marked on the map above) and lies on the African and Eurasian tectonic plates' collision path, making the region one of the most seismically active areas in the Mediterranean.
News Source: The Hindu
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