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India-US: 2+ 2 Dialogue: UPSC Current Affairs

Apr 19, 2022


In today's edition of our Current Affairs Dialog box, we will discuss the India-US 2+2 dialogue and its relevance to the UPSC CSE syllabus. Enhance your UPSC exam preparation with this detailed article.

For Prelims: Current Events of National and International Importance.

For Mains: Bilateral, Regional and Global Groupings and Agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests.    

Here is the link to yesterday's edition of Current Affairs, in case you missed it.

Why in the News?

Recently, the fourth ‘2+2’ dialogue was held between India and the United States in Washington DC.

Probable Question

India-USA bonhomie is attributed more to the recent rise of China in international politics rather than the shared values. Comment

Key Points

What are 2+2 talks?

  • The 2+2 dialogue is a format of the meeting of the foreign and defence ministers of India and its allies on strategic and security issues. 
  • A 2+2 ministerial dialogue enables the partners to better understand and appreciate each other’s strategic concerns and help build a stronger, more integrated strategic relationship in a rapidly changing global environment.
  • India has 2+2 dialogues with four key strategic partners: the US, Australia, Japan, and Russia

India-US: 2+ 2 DIALOGUE

  • The first 2+2 dialogue between India-USA was held during the Donald Trump Administration.
  • “2+2” dialogue replaced the Strategic and Commercial Dialogue between the foreign and commerce ministers of the two countries that was held during the previous Obama administration.
  • It is to focus on “strengthening strategic, security and defence cooperation” between the two countries
  • Outcomes:
    • India and the US have signed a troika of “foundational pacts” for deep military cooperation, beginning with the Logistics Exchange Memorandum of Agreement (LEMOA) in 2016, followed by the Communications Compatibility and Security Agreement (COMCASA) after the first 2+2 dialogue in 2018, and then the Basic Exchange and Cooperation Agreement (BECA) in 2020.
  • The strengthening of the mechanisms of cooperation between the two militaries are of significance in the context of an increasingly aggressive China.

Accelerate your UPSC CSE preparation with a detailed video on Indexes Related to Trade, Innovation & Economic Freedom by our Current Affairs faculty, Prem Sodhani sir:

4th ‘2+2’ dialogue: Key Highlights

  • Combined Maritime Force (CMF): To further expand the defence cooperation, India is joining the Bahrain based multilateral partnership, Combined Maritime Force (CMF), as an Associate Partner.
    • It will strengthen the cooperation in regional security in the western Indian Ocean.
  • Space Cooperation: NASA and the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) are jointly developing the NASA-ISRO Synthetic Aperture Radar (NISAR) satellite, planned for launch from India in 2023. 
    • The NISAR mission will collect data vital to tackling the climate crisis.
  • Space Situational Awareness (SSA) Agreement: The SSA involves collating data on orbiting satellites, rocket parts and space debris, and monitoring threats to a country's space assets from any hostile satellite, besides analysing such data to convert them into actionable information to deal with such threats. 
  • On Afghanistan: The Joint statement called on the Taliban to abide by United Nations Security Council resolution which demands that Afghan territory must never again be used to threaten or attack any country or to shelter or train terrorists, or to plan or finance terrorist attacks.
  • Expanding Areas of Cooperation: The two sides also agreed to explore further cooperation in defence cyber, special forces and expanding the scope of logistics cooperation under LEMOA and during joint exercises.
  • On Ukraine: Both nations continue to maintain close consultations on the ongoing crisis in Ukraine, including on humanitarian assistance efforts, and echoed support for an independent investigation into the brutal violence deployed against civilians in Bucha.

Way Forward

  • 2+2 talks between India-US reaffirms a robust, forward-looking vision for the India-US strategic partnership in the Indo-Pacific on key issues pertaining to energy, security, climate, science and technology cooperation, public health, and people-to-people ties.
  • The 2+2 meeting is a good opportunity to work on other aspects of the Indo-US relationship where both nations do not see convergence of interests. 
    • For Example, the Ukraine-Russia war.

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