Oct 11, 2022
Enhance your UPSC CSE preparation with our daily dose of Current Affairs wherein we discuss topics that make news at National and International level. In today's edition, we will talk about the Nobel Prize 2022 (Chemistry and Physics winners).
Recently the Nobel Prize for 2022 has been awarded to certain individuals and organizations, selected by the committees in Sweden and Norway.
• Around the year 2000, K Barry Sharpless coined the concept of click chemistry.
• Click Chemistry is a form of simple and reliable chemistry, where reactions occur quickly and unwanted by-products are avoided.
• Morten Meldal and Barry Sharpless, independently of each other, presented what is now the crown jewel of click chemistry: the copper catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition.
• This chemical reaction is now in widespread use. Among many other uses, it is utilized in the development of pharmaceuticals, for mapping DNA and creating materials that are more fit for purpose.
• Carolyn Bertozzi gave the concept of Bioorthogonal chemistry or Reactions.
• Carolyn Bertozzi took click chemistry to a new level. To map important but elusive biomolecules on the surface of cells, glycans, she developed click reactions that work inside living organisms.
• Her bioorthogonal reactions take place without disrupting the normal chemistry of the cell.
• These reactions are now used globally to explore cells and track biological processes.
• Using bioorthogonal reactions, researchers have improved the targeting of cancer pharmaceuticals, which are now being tested in clinical trials.
• Quantum theory is the theoretical basis of modern physics that explains the nature and behavior of matter and energy on the atomic and subatomic level.
•Superposition and Entanglement are two key concepts in Quantum Theory.
• The theory allows a particle to exist simultaneously at multiple locations, a phenomenon known as superposition.
• The chance of finding the particle at any given place was dictated by probabilistic calculations, and once it was found, or observed, at one location, it ceased to exist at all other places.
• It is one of the properties exhibited by these tiny particles.
• Two particles, having ‘interacted’ with each other at some stage, were found to have got ‘entangled’ in a way that the behavior of one produced an instantaneous reaction in the other even if the two were connected for a while.
News Source: The Indian Express, The Hindu
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