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Explained: Reasons for Depreciation of Indian Rupee Against the Dollar in 2022
Jan 04, 2023
Today’s edition of our Current Affairs will comprise a discussion on Reasons for Depreciation of Indian Rupee Against the Dollar in 2022. Read further to upgrade your UPSC CSE knowledge and also understand the topic’s relevance to the UPSC syllabus.
For Prelims: Economic and Social Development
Depreciation of Indian Rupee, Crude oil prices, Global Economic Slowdown, Current Account Deficit (CAD).
For Mains: GS Paper III - Indian Economy and issues relating to Planning, Mobilization of Resources, Growth, Development and Employment
About the Rupee in 2022, Reason behind Capital outflows, Impact of Rupee Depreciation on the Indian Economy, The outlook on the rupee for 2023.
Explain the factors responsible for the decline in the value of the Indian Rupee the vis-a-vis U.S. Dollar recently. How depreciation affects an economy? (150 words, 10 marks)
About the Rupee in 2022
In the year 2022, the rupee was the worst-performing Asian currency in 2022, with a decline of around 10% against the greenback, whereas other Asian currencies fell between 6-9%.
The rupee fell to a lifetime low of 83.2 against the dollar. Its foreign exchange reserves have fallen by $70 billion.
Reason Behind Capital Outflows
Inflation: To fight against inflation, the US Fed has raised interest rates by 425 basis points (bps) in 2022.
Safeguarding money: Investors used this opportunity and in 2022 they pulled out around Rs 1.34 lakh crore from the Indian market (the highest ever) and started investing in the US market, to take advantage of the higher interest rates.
Increase in Crude oil Price: The higher crude oil price is also another reason that caused investors to ditch the riskier Indian assets and invest in other safer alternatives available.
Higher Import Inflation: The falling rupee is also caused by higher import inflation and resulted in a growing trade deficit, which also caused the rupee to fall.
Widening Current Account Deficit (CAD): Widening CAD along with persistent risk-off sentiment owing to geopolitical tensions and a strengthening dollar index have put depreciating pressure on the rupee.
Impact of Rupee Depreciation on the Indian Economy
Depreciation reduces the currency value of a country as compared to other countries.
Depreciation makes imports more expensive, as the currency weakens.
The fall in currency causes inflation, as the goods become expensive, feeding into domestic retail inflation through higher prices of petrol and diesel.
For corporates and the government, the implications are the expensive overseas debt in US$ to service and redeem (repay).
There will be a direct and indirect impact on household items. Electronic goods will also become expensive due to expensive imports.
Industries dependent on export such as pharmacy and IT will be benefited from the depreciating rupee, whereas those industries that are import dependent will be at a loss and the ultimate burden will be on end users.
The falling rupee also implies that fresh capital investments in infrastructure sectors like solar and wind energy, which are mainly dependent on imports will be adversely affected.
It will also impact those who are planning to study abroad or travel abroad.
Indian economy is the fastest growing economy, hence the depreciation will not last long.
The move of the US Fed will also not last longer thus the tide will surely turn.
RBI has now started to again build up its reserves and that would act as a buffer in times of uncertainty.
Additional Information: Depreciation and Devaluation:
It is a fall in the value of a currency.
It impacts the exchange rate of a depreciating currency as compared to the currency of other nations.
Depreciation of a currency occurs due to factors such as differential interest rate, instability of an economy, political instability, or risk aversion among investors.
Depreciation is often confused with the devaluation of a currency. Devaluation is the opposite of revaluation (readjustment of a currency exchange rate).Devaluation of a currency is a monetary policy tool, in which a currency is deliberately adjusted downward to reduce the burden on its currency.
News Source: The Indian Express, The Times Of India