Feb 14, 2023
Today’s edition of our Current Affairs will comprise a discussion on GSI Discovers Lithium Resources in J&K. Read further to upgrade your UPSC CSE knowledge and also understand the topic’s relevance to the UPSC syllabus.
For Prelims: Economic Geography
Lithium inferred resources (G3), Geological Survey of India (GSI), United Nations Framework for, Classification for Solid Fuels and Mineral Commodities Reserves and Resources (UNFC 1997), Economic Commission for Europe (ECE), United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC).
For Mains: GS Paper I (Distribution of key natural resources across the world)
Highlights of the recent finding, About Inferred Resources, About Lithium, Lithium in India, and Potential Lithium reserves in India.
Recently, lithium inferred resources (G3) of 5.9 million tonnes have been established in the Salal-Haimana area of Reasi District of Jammu and Kashmir by the Geological Survey of India (GSI).
Explain the significance of Lithium ‘inferred’ resources that were recently discovered in Jammu and Kashmir. (150 words, 10 marks)
It stands for the United Nations Framework for Classification for Solid Fuels and Mineral Commodities Reserves and Resources (UNFC 1997).
Background: UNFC-1997 is the result of the Economic Commission for Europe (ECE) initiative in 1990.
Objective: To develop a simple, user‐friendly, uniform system for classifying and reporting reserves and resources of solid fuels and mineral commodities.
UNFC‐1997 was endorsed by the United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) in 1997.
In 2004, UNFC was renamed the UNFC for Fossil Energy and Mineral Resources 2004 (UNFC‐2004) to extend the classification to petroleum (oil and natural gas) and uranium.
Classification under UNFC for mineral deposit:
Stage 1: Reconnaissance (G4)
Stage 2: Preliminary exploration (G3)
Stage 3: General Exploration (G2)
Stage 4: Detailed Exploration (G1)
About Geological Survey of India (GSI):The Geological Survey of India (GSI) was set up in 1851 primarily to find coal deposits for the Railways.
Functions: The main functions of GSI relate to the creation and updation of national geoscientific information and mineral resource assessment.
Working: These objectives are achieved through ground surveys, air-borne, and marine surveys, mineral prospecting and investigations, multi-disciplinary geoscientific, geo-technical, geo-environmental and natural hazards studies, glaciology, seismotectonic study, and carrying out fundamental research.
Significance: The outcome of the work of GSI has immense societal value. The functioning and annual programs of GSI assume significance from the national perspective.
Development: Over the years, it has not only grown into a repository of geo-science information required in various fields in the country but has also attained the status of a geo-scientific organization of international repute.
At present, the Atomic Minerals Directorate for Exploration and Research (AMD), an arm of the Department of Atomic Energy, has been carrying out exploration.
News Source: The Indian Express
Chile to a significant extent boasts the world's greatest lithium reserves. With reserves anticipated to total 6.2 million metric tonnes in 2022, Australia ranks second. Mineral reserves are those that could have been produced or extracted at the time of estimation.
Potential Lithium reserves that India has:
As per a projection, we will be extracting several million tonnes of lithium annually, so we need to consider recycling it rather than keeping on extracting it from the earth, by 2030. It is due to the finite nature of the lithium deposit.
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