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Who was Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj?
Dec 04, 2022
In today's edition of our Current Affairs, we will be talking about Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj in detail and its relevance to the UPSC CSE syllabus.
For Prelims: History Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj, Battle of Pratapgad, Tanaji Malusare, Mughal Empire, Jagirdari System, Ryotwari System.
ForMains: GS Paper I: History; Important Personalities About Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj, Significant Battles of Shivaji Maharaj, Remembrance of Shivaji Maharaj, Shivaji and the Mughals, The great escape.
Recently a comparison between Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj’s legendary Agra escape and to Chief Minister’s defection has triggered a controversy and drew sharp criticism.
Who was Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj and what was his significant contribution and events? (150 Words, 10 marks)
About Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj
He was born at Shivneri Fort in District Pune in Maharashtra on 19th February 1630.
He was born to Shahaji Bhonsle, a Maratha general who served different Deccan Sultans under the Bijapur Sultanate, and Jijabai, whose religious qualities had significantly influenced Shivaji.
Shivaji Maharaj was keen on expanding his father’s fiefdom of modern-day Pune into an independent Maratha state.
It was the time when several Sultanates (mainly Bijapur, Golkonda, and Ahmadnagar) and the Mughals were vying for control of the Deccan.
Early in his life, Shivaji realized that the key to holding power in the Deccan (or for that matter, many places in India in that era) was to capture and hold important forts.
Shivaji’s conflict with the Adil Shahi Sultanate of Bijapur began when he was only 16.
His military zeal helped him to acquire Adil Shah’s Torna Fort and Kondana Fort.
Battle of Pratapgad, 1659: The battle was fought with the Adilshahi general Afzal Khan at the Pratapgad fort near the town of Satara (Maharashtra).
Battle of Pavan Khind, 1660: It was fought between the Maratha Sardar Baji Prabhu Deshpande and Siddi Masud of Adilshahi at a mountain pass in the vicinity of fort Vishalgad, near Kolhapur (Maharashtra).
Sacking of Surat, 1664: It was fought with Inayat Khan, a Mughal captain, near Surat (Gujarat).
Battle of Purandar, 1665: The battle was fought with Mirza Raja Jai Singh I, a Mughal Army Chief on the fort of Sinhagad near the city of Pune, Maharashtra.
Battle of Sinhagad, 1670: The battle was fought between Tanaji Malusare, a commander of Maratha ruler Shivaji Maharaj and Udaybhan Rathod, fort keeper under Jai Singh I.
Battle of Kalyan, 1682-83: It was fought with Bahadur Khan of the Mughal Empire. Maratha's army was defeated in the battle and Kalyan was taken over.
Battle of Sangamner, 1679: It is the last battle of Shivaji Maharaj. It was fought with the Mughal Empire.
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