Your Ultimate UPSC Study Material To Crack IAS Exam
Comprehensive content tailored For Success
Fibre to Fabric - Science and Tech NCERT Notes for UPSC
Jan 24, 2023
Clothes are made from a wide range of different materials that are known as Fabrics. Some major varieties of fabrics are cotton, wool, silk, synthetic fibres, etc. Discover different types of fabrics in this article and upgrade your IAS exam preparation.
Generally, Fabrics are made up of yarns and yarns are further made up of fibres. In simple words, the thin strands of thread which are further made up of thinner strands are called as fibres.
Examples of some Plants Fibres
Cotton plants are usually grown at places having black soil and warm climate.
The fruits of the cotton plant (cotton bolls) are about the size of a lemon.
After maturing, the bolls burst open and the seeds covered with cotton fibres can be seen.
From these bolls, cotton is usually picked by hand.
Fibres are then separated from the seeds by combing. This process is called Ginning of cotton.
Jute fibre is obtained from the stem of the jute plant.
It is cultivated during the rainy season.
In India, it is mainly grown in West Bengal, Bihar, and Assam.
The jute plant is normally harvested when it is at the flowering stage.
The stems of the harvested plants are immersed in water for a few days. The stems rot and then fibres are separated by hand.
These fibres are then processed to make the Fabric. For example, Cotton Fibre is converted to Yarn by Spinning. Yarn is further processed through weaving or Knitting to make fabrics.
Process of converting cotton yarn into fabric
Spinning Cotton Yarn
The process of making yarn from fibres is called spinning.
In this process, fibres from a mass of cotton wool are drawn out and twisted. This brings the fibres together to form a yarn.
Hand-operated devices such as Takli and Charkha are used in spinning.
The spinning of yarn on a large scale is done with the help of spinning machines.
Yarn to Fabric
It involves two main processes i.e., weaving and knitting.
The process of arranging two sets of yarns together to make a fabric is called weaving.
The weaving of fabric is done on looms which are hand or power operated.
In knitting, a single yarn is used to make a piece of fabric.
Knitting is also done by hand or on machines.
Since ancient times, Fibres such as Cotton, wool, etc. have been an important and integral part of human life and have made our life more comfortable.
Frequently Asked Questions about Fibre to Fabric
What are the steps in the process of fibre to fabric production?
According to the UPSC syllabus, the steps in the process of fiber to fabric production are:
Cultivation and harvesting of plants: The first step in the process of fiber to fabric production is the cultivation and harvesting of plants that are used to produce fibers, such as cotton, jute, hemp, and flax.
Extraction of fibers: Once the plants are harvested, the fibers are extracted using various methods such as retting, ginning, and separation. These methods vary depending on the type of plant used.
Spinning: The extracted fibers are then spun into yarn using a spinning wheel or a spinning machine.
Weaving or knitting: The spun yarn is then woven or knitted into fabrics using various looms or knitting machines.
Finishing: The fabrics are then subjected to various finishing processes such as bleaching, dyeing, printing, and pressing to improve their appearance and durability.
Quality control: Quality control checks are done to ensure the fabrics meet the required standards before being packaged and sent for distribution.
It is important to note that these steps may vary slightly depending on the specific method of production and the type of fiber used. However, these are the general steps involved in the process of fiber to fabric production.
What is the process to convert yarn to fabric called?
According to the UPSC syllabus, the process to convert yarn to fabric is called weaving or knitting.
Weaving is the process of interlacing two sets of yarns, the warp and the weft, to create a fabric. A loom is used to hold the warp yarns in place while the weft yarn is passed through them using a shuttle. This process creates a variety of fabrics like cotton, silk, and polyester.
Knitting is the process of creating fabric by interlocking loops of yarn. This process uses knitting needles or a knitting machine to loop the yarn and create a fabric. Different types of fabrics can be created by using different yarns and knitting techniques like weft knitting and warp knitting.
Both weaving and knitting are used to create a wide range of fabrics, from lightweight and delicate to heavy and durable, depending on the type of yarn and the techniques used. The final product is the fabric that can be used for clothing, upholstery, and other purposes.
How are cotton fabrics converted into yarn?
According to the UPSC syllabus, cotton fabrics are converted into yarn through a process called spinning.
Spinning is the process of twisting fibers together to create yarn. The process of spinning cotton fabrics into yarn involves several steps:
Preparation of cotton: The cotton fabric is first cleaned and carded, to remove impurities and to align the fibers in the same direction.
Spinning: The carded cotton is then fed into a spinning machine, which twists the fibers together to create yarn. The yarn can be spun in different thicknesses, known as counts, depending on the intended use of the yarn.
Plying: The yarn may be plied, which is the process of twisting two or more yarns together to create a thicker and stronger yarn.
Winding: Finally, the yarn is wound onto a spool or bobbin for easy transport and storage.
It is important to note that there are various methods of spinning yarn, including hand spinning and machine spinning. And also the spinning process can vary depending on the type of cotton used, the intended use of the yarn, and the desired properties of the yarn.
How is cotton made into fabric step by step for upsc?
According to the UPSC syllabus, the process of converting cotton into fabric involves several steps:
Cultivation and harvesting: Cotton is a plant that is grown and harvested for its fibers. These fibers are found inside the cotton boll and need to be extracted before they can be processed into fabric.
Ginning: The harvested cotton bolls are processed in a cotton gin to separate the fibers from the seeds and other plant matter.
Cleaning and carding: The fibers are then cleaned to remove any impurities and carded to align the fibers in the same direction.
Spinning: The cleaned and carded cotton fibers are then spun into yarn using a spinning wheel or a spinning machine.
Weaving or knitting: The spun yarn is then woven or knitted into fabric using various looms or knitting machines.
Finishing: The fabric is then subjected to various finishing processes such as bleaching, dyeing, printing, and pressing to improve its appearance and durability.
Quality control: Quality control checks are done to ensure the fabric meets the required standards before being packaged and sent for distribution.
It is important to note that these steps may vary slightly depending on the specific method of production and the type of cotton used. However, these are the general steps involved in the process of converting cotton into fabric.
What are the two main ways of converting yarn into fibre?
According to the UPSC syllabus, there are two main ways of converting yarn into fiber:
Spinning: Spinning is the process of twisting fibers together to create yarn. Spinning can be done by hand or by machine, and can use a variety of fibers including cotton, wool, silk and synthetic fibers to create yarn.
Plying: Plying is the process of twisting two or more yarns together to create a thicker and stronger yarn. The yarns can be of the same or different materials and can be plied in the opposite or the same direction to create different textures and strength in the yarn.
It is important to note that spinning and plying are the two main ways of creating yarn from fibers, but other methods also exist, such as boucle yarn, chenille yarn, and slub yarn.