Nov 30, 2022
Our today's edition of Current Affairs is here. Read to know more about Science behind Volcanic Eruptions. Also, find the topic's relevance to the UPSC CSE syllabus below:
For Prelims: Geography
Mauna Loa, Volcanoes Eruption, Geothermal gradient, Magma chambers, lava, Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI).
For Mains: GS Paper I
About the Volcanoes Eruption, Explosive and Implosive Volcanic Eruptions, Some famous volcanoes, Volcanoes in India.
Recently the world’s largest active volcano named Mauna Loa erupted after 38 years, covering the night sky of Hawaii’s Big Island in an incandescent red hue.
Explain the science behind volcanic eruptions and why some of them are explosive and some are less. (150 words, 10 marks)
It is an opening in the earth’s surface that allows gases, volcanic ash, and magma to come out as a hot liquid and semi-liquid rock.
Volcanic hotspots: Those regions where Earth’s tectonic plates come together, are the volcanic hotspots.
The intensity and explosiveness with which a volcano will erupt depend on the composition of the magma.
Also Read: Mineral and Energy Resources of India- NCERT Notes UPSC
It is caused due to thick and sticky magma.
The only active volcanoes in India are in Andaman and Nicobar Island, which too erupted 150 years ago. Following is the list of volcanoes in India:
Krakatoa, Indonesia: One of the most catastrophic volcanic eruptions ever occurred in Krakatoa in 1883 (VEI 6).
Vesuvius, Italy: In 79 CE, Mount Vesuvius erupted (VEI 5), in one of the deadliest eruptions in European history, killing as many as 16,000 and destroying the town of Pompeii.
Mount Fuji, Japan: Mount Fuji towers over the countryside with its snow-capped peaks and barren surface. It last erupted in 1707-1708 (VEI 5) and had a devastating effect on the local population.
Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland: Sometimes referred to as E15, it is one of the many volcanic features of Iceland. In 2010, a relatively small eruption (VEI 4) managed to bring air traffic in Europe to a complete standstill.
Kīlauea, Hawaii: Adjacent to the Mauna Loa, this is one of the most active volcanoes on the planet.
Mount St Helens, USA: Located in Washington State, Mount St. Helens was a major eruption that occurred on May 18, 1980 (VEI 5).
News Source: The Indian Express
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