Apr 27, 2023
Hyperthyroidism is a condition in which there is an increased function of the thyroid gland. It is also known as overactive thyroid, because of excessive releases of thyroid hormone. This condition can speed up the metabolism of the body. The main hormones which are released by the thyroid gland include triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4). Symptoms, such as weight loss, hand tremors, and rapid or irregular heartbeat (palpitations) can be seen in patients suffering from hyperthyroidism.
Read this blog further to get a quick overview of this important topic for Medicine and ace your NEET PG/NExT exam preparation.
There can be primary or secondary causes of hyperthyroidism. Primary causes are the causes which are directly related to overworking of thyroid gland i.e. excessive production of the hormones by thyroid gland whereas secondary causes are related to pituitary abnormalities.
In Grave’s disease the antibodies are formed against the body knowns as Lats (Long Acting Thyroid Stimulating Antibodies) also known as TSI (Thyroid Stimulating Antibody) or TBII (Thyrotropin Binding Inhibiting Immunoglobulin Assay). These antibodies behave like TSH and they stimulate the gland to release more hormones leading to over exertion of the thyroid gland.
Pituitary adenoma is the tumor of the adrenal gland. It can be micronodular or macronodular. It causes excessive release of TSH thus resulting in excessive production of T3 and T4.
Toxic multinodular goitre also known as toxic adenoma. There is mutation of TSH receptors releading to overproduction of thyroid hormones.
Due to excessive consumption of iodine on a dietary basis there is an increase in trapping of iodine in the body which leads to an increase in T4 levels in the body. There is no dysfunction of the gland in this effect; it is just due to dietary consumption of iodine for many years.
It is most likely in the countries where there is excessive consumption of beef and cattle. In case if the the thyroid gland of the animal is diseased and is accidently consumed by the person it causes exogenous response in the body of the person who consumed it leading to increase in production of hormones in the body.
Struma ovarii is the tumor of the ovarian gland. It causes stimulation of release of thyroid hormones resulting in excessive levels of the thyroid hormones in the body.
Gestational Trophoblastic Neoplasia is a condition in which tumors develop during the early phase of Pregnancy leading to excessive release of beta HCG levels in the body. The beta HCG levels mimic the structure of TSH thus when the levels of beta HCG are increased they bind to TSH receptors thus leading to excessive release in level of thyroid hormones.
Following are the risk factors for hyperthyroidism
There are various symptoms of hyperthyroidism that can impact the entire body. You can experience certain symptoms whereas some may not be experienced. Symptoms of hyperthyroidism include:
Hyperthyroidism can be diagnosed with a medical history of the person, physical exam and certain blood tests.
Blood test: Blood tests measure the levels of hormones i.e T4 and T-3 and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) that can help to confirm a diagnosis of hyperthyroidism. A high level of T-4 and a low level of TSH can be commonly found in people suffering from hyperthyroidism’.
Thyroid ultrasound: It uses high-frequency sound waves which make images of the thyroid gland. Ultrasound is better in finding nodules of the thyroid gland. There's no exposure to radiation to patients in this test, so it can be used on pregnant or breastfeeding females or other patients who can't take the radioiodine test.
There are various types of treatments which are available for hyperthyroidism. The underlying cause of hyperthyroidism and how severe it is can help us to decide the treatment as well. Based on your condition your healthcare worker can help you to provide the best treatment option. Treatment may include:
It is the complication of Graves’ disease which is one of the causes of hyperthyroidism. It is also known as Graves’ eye. Certain complications of Graves’ eye disease are:
As hyperthyroidism can impact different parts of our body so many different systems can be affected due to increased level of hormones including vascular system (heart) to your skeletal system (bones)
Complications of untreated hyperthyroidism include:
This is everything that you need to know about hyperthyroidism for your Medicine preparation. For more interesting and informative blog posts like this download the PrepLadder App and keep reading our blog!
Get access to all the essential resources required to ace your medical exam Preparation. Stay updated with the latest news and developments in the medical exam, improve your Medical Exam preparation, and turn your dreams into a reality!
The most popular search terms used by aspirants