Jul 11, 2023
The bacteria Vibrio cholerae is what causes the infectious disease cholera. Cholera is primarily spread by contaminated water. It is also known as Blue beath because due to severe dehydration, the blood becomes thickened in the vessels leading to depletion of oxygen which leads to bluish discolouration of the skin.
The majority of cholera victims show little to no symptoms, although a handful develop severe diarrhoea and dehydration.
In severe cases, rapid treatment is required because death can happen in just a few hours. Even if someone were in a healthy state before being infected with cholera, this is still possible.
The majority of nations have successfully eradicated cholera because of modern sewage and water treatment. In some areas of Asia, Latin America, Africa, and the Middle East, it is still a problem.
Early writings about cholera-like disorders can be found in manuscripts from India (Sushruta Samhita, 5th century B.C. ), Greece (Hippocrates, 4th century B.C. ), and Cappadocia (Areteus, 1st century A.D.).
Gaspar Correa, a Portuguese historian and the author of Legendary India, provided one of the first in-depth accounts of a cholera pandemic. He documented a sickness outbreak in the Ganges Delta, a region in south Asia that includes Bangladesh and India, in the spring of 1543. The sickness was known locally as "moryxy," and it is said to have killed victims within 8 hours of exhibiting symptoms. The disease's high fatality rate made it difficult for locals to bury all the dead.
Over the following several centuries, observers from Portugal, the Netherlands, France, and Britain reported several cases of cholera along India's west coast.
With an epidemic in Jessore, India, in 1817, caused by tainted rice, the Ganges Delta gave rise to the first cholera pandemic. By using trade channels created by Europeans, the disease soon spread throughout the majority of India, contemporary Myanmar, and contemporary Sri Lanka.
Cholera had already spread to Thailand, Indonesia (where it killed 100,000 people on the island of Java alone), and the Philippines by 1820. The disease originated in Thailand and Indonesia and was transported by infected individuals on ships to China in 1820 and Japan in 1822. Moreover, it grew outside of Asia. The Persian Gulf was infected with cholera in 1821 by British troops moving from India to Oman. Later, the epidemic spread to Europe, touching down in Southern Russia, Turkey, and Syria.
A harsh winter in 1823–1824, which may have destroyed the bacteria residing in water supplies, is likely to blame for the pandemic's six-year death toll.
Americas and Europe are both affected by cholera.
Beginning in 1829, there was a second cholera pandemic.
The second pandemic is believed to have originated in India, and like the first, it travelled along commercial and military routes to Eastern and Central Asia, as well as the Middle East.
Cholera reached Moscow by the autumn of 1830. The disease's spread briefly slowed during the winter, but it quickly resumed in the spring of 1831, reaching Finland and Poland. Germany and Hungary were next it entered.
Later, the illness spread across all of Europe, making its first appearance in Great Britain via the ports of Sunderland and London in late 1831 and early 1832, respectively. Quarantines were implemented and local health boards were established in Britain as part of a number of measures to help stop the disease's spread.
However, widespread disease-related apprehension and mistrust of authorities, especially doctors, seized the populace. People started to assume that victims brought to hospitals were slain by doctors for anatomical dissection, a consequence they referred to as "Burking," and that more victims died there than at home as a result of inaccurate journalistic coverage. Several "cholera riots" broke out in Liverpool as a result of this concern.
The Americas had also been colonised by cholera in 1832. In June of that year, the plague claimed 1,000 lives in Quebec as it rapidly spread along the St. Lawrence River and its tributaries.
Cholera was imported into the country during the same period and first appeared in Philadelphia and New York. It would spread all over the nation during the following few years. In 1833, it made its way to Mexico and Cuba in Latin America.
Before it finally died down in about 1851, the pandemic would reappear in many nations for nearly 20 years.
Cholera infection is caused by Vibrio cholerae. The bacteria that causes the disease creates a toxin in the small intestine, which is what causes its fatal effects. The toxin makes the body leak massive volumes of water, which results in diarrhoea and a quick loss of fluids and salts (electrolytes), as well as diarrhoea.
Cholera bacteria might not always result in illness in people who are exposed to it, yet these bacteria are still passed in faeces and can contaminate food and water supplies.
The primary method of transmission of cholera is through contaminated water sources.
Most cholera cases that result in symptoms cause mild to severe diarrhoea, which is frequently difficult to distinguish from diarrhoea brought on by other conditions. Others experience more severe cholera symptoms, typically within a few days after infection.
Cholera infection symptoms can include:
|Reservoir of infection||Humans are the only reservoir|
|Period of communicability||8-10 days to weeks/months|
|Mode of transmission||Water, food, famine, direct contact|
|Incubation period||1-2 days|
Cholera can affect anyone, but certain things may make it more likely. These risk factors also raise your chance of developing a severe case:
Diagnosis of cholera can be done with the help of the following methods:
Treatment of cholera includes:
Chances of getting cholera can be prevented with the help of the following methods:
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