May 31, 2023
The toxin-producing bacterium causes tetanus which is the cause of the fatal neurological disorder. The disease frequently causes muscle contractions, especially in the neck and jaw muscles. A typical tetanus symptom is lockjaw.
If tetanus effects are severe, they could be fatal. There is no known cure for tetanus. While the effects of the tetanus toxin are still being felt, the aim of treatment is to manage symptoms and adverse effects.
Due to the widespread use of immunisations, tetanus cases are infrequent in the United States and other industrialized countries. Those who have not had all of their recommended vaccines are still at danger for contracting the illness. It happens more commonly in developing countries.
Read this blog further to get a quick overview of this important topic for microbiology and ace your NEET PG exam preparation.
Organism causing tetanus is clostridium tetani. It is gram-positive, anaerobic bacteria having a drumstick appearance. It is a spore-forming bacilli. The contamination of the wounds with the spores of the bacilli may transmit infection. Tetanus is mainly due to the production of exotoxin.
The reservoir and source of these toxins is soil and the mode of transmission is by contamination of wounds with the organism's spores. There is no period of communicability and the incubation Period is 6 to 10 days and it can extend up to months.
It is also known as 8th-day disease . It is caused by Infection of the umbilical stump. Elimination of neonatal tetanus was achieved in India around 15th May 2015. Criteria for elimination is considered as less than one case per 1000 live births.
It is achieved by following the methods listed below:
Infection with tetanus is also made more likely by the following factors:
In a National immunization schedule, tetanus toxoid is given in the form of tetanus-diphtheria vaccine (Td vaccine). It is given as a pentavalent vaccine.
At the age of 6th week first dose is given known as Penta 1
At the age of 10th week, Penta 2 is given
At the age of 14th week, Penta 3 is given
Passive immunization is done by Human tetanus immunoglobulin. Its Dose is 250 IU for all age groups
|Category||Clean wound||Unclean wound|
|A - Full immunization within 5 years.||Only wound care.||Only wound care.|
|B - Full immunization > 5 years ago < 10 years.||Wound Care + TT single dose.||Wound Care + TT single dose.|
|C - Full Immunization > 10 years ago.||Wound Care+ TT single dose.||Wound Care + TT single dose + Human TetanusImmunoglobulin.|
|D - Unknown, not known, never taken immunization.||Wound Care + TT complete course.||Wound Care + TT complete course + Human TetanusImmunoglobulin.|
Antibiotics are recommended for a non-immune person with sustained injury and Not for active against spores. In this the Dose given is 1.2 mega units of Benzathine Penicillin
Tetanus infection complications could include:
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