Apr 7, 2023
Acute Bacterial Conjunctivitis
Allergy conjunctivitis Treatment
WHO grading of xerophthalmia
Pathological changes in xerophthalmia
Treatment for xerophthalmia
Local treatment for xerophthalmia
Structure of Pterygial Formation
Layers of Tear Film After Cornea
Clinical Manifestations of Dry Eye
Investigation of Dry Eye Disorder
The translucent membrane that lines the eyelid and eyeball known as conjunctiva becomes inflamed, resulting in conjunctivitis. Conjunctival tiny blood vessels are more obvious when they are inflamed and swollen. The white area of the eyes seems reddish or pink because of this thus Conjunctivitis is also known as pink eye.
Viral infections are most frequently to blame for conjunctivitis. Additionally, it might be brought on by a bacterial infection, an allergic reaction, or in infants, a partially opened tear duct.
Even while the conjunctiva can cause pain, it rarely impairs eyesight. Pink eye irritation may be lessened with some treatments. Since the pink eye can spread quickly, getting a quick diagnosis and following the appropriate precautions can help contain its spread.
The following are some causes of pink eye:
Colds or signs of a respiratory infection, including a scratchy throat, can coexist with bacterial and viral conjunctivitis. Using improperly cleaned or borrowed contact lenses can result in bacterial conjunctivitis.
Both are extremely contagious. Through direct or indirect contact with the discharge from an infected person's eye, they can be disseminated.
An allergic reaction to a trigger, such as pollen, causes allergic conjunctivitis, which affects both eyes. Your body makes a protein called immunoglobulin E (IgE) as a reaction to allergens. Histamines and other inflammatory chemicals are released by IgE-stimulated specific cells in the mucous lining of your eyes and airways. Many allergy symptoms, such as red or pink eyes, might be brought on by your body's release of histamine.
You might also sneeze frequently and have watery nasal discharge if you have allergic conjunctivitis, which also causes acute eye itching, tearing, and inflammation. Allergy eye drops can be used to manage the majority of allergic conjunctivitis. There is no spread of allergic conjunctivitis.
Conjunctivitis is also related to eye irritation from chemical splashes or foreign objects. Redness and discomfort can occasionally result from washing the eye out with water or a flush to remove an item or chemical. after most cases, symptoms, which may include watery eyes and a mucous discharge, go away on their own after a day or so.
Consult with your doctor or an eye specialist right away if flushing doesn't relieve the symptoms or if the substance is a caustic one, like lye. An eye injury from a chemical splash could be long-lasting. There may still be a foreign body in your eye if you continue to have symptoms. Another possibility is that your cornea or its membrane covering has been scratched.
The most typical signs of pink eye include:
This type of conjunctivitis involves the formation of 2 cantha along with excoriation of the skin. Moraxella Axenfeld has been the recurring cause of this type of conjunctivitis.
Some other pathogens also causing angular conjunctivitis are mentioned below:
The treatment method employed is the usage of antibiotic eye drops or zinc oxide solution. It Inhibits proteolytic enzymes.
The various causes which can lead to subconjunctival hemorrhage are:
In the Active inflammatory stage:
The next stage of the infection is the Chronic Cicatricial stage
F - Grade 1 More than 5 follicles in the upper palpebral
I - Grade 2 Inflammatory
S - Grade 3 Scarring
T - Grade 4 Trichiasis
O - Grade 5 Corneal opacity
Risk factors for pink eye include:
Usually, the goal of treating pink eye is to reduce symptoms. Your supplier might advise:
Prior to using them, disinfect hard lenses overnight. Inquire with your healthcare professional if you need to replace any contact lens cases or other accessories that you have used in the past or currently. Additionally, throw away any eye makeup you had on before being ill.
Typically, antibiotic eye drops are not necessary. Antibiotics won't help because viral infections frequently cause conjunctivitis.
By decreasing their future effectiveness or triggering a negative drug reaction, they might potentially be harmful. Rather, the virus needs time to spread throughout the body.
Within a few days, viral conjunctivitis frequently spreads from one eye to the other after starting in the first. Your symptoms ought to eventually go away by themselves.
If the herpes simplex virus is to blame for your viral conjunctivitis, antiviral medications can be a possibility.
If allergic conjunctivitis is the cause of the irritation, your doctor may recommend one of the numerous allergy-specific eye drops.
Antihistamines and mast cell stabilizers are examples of medications that can help manage allergic reactions. Decongestants, steroids, and anti-inflammatory eye drops are a few examples of the medications your doctor may prescribe to help manage inflammation.
These medications' over-the-counter counterparts might also work well. Find out which choice is best for you by asking your provider.
By avoiding whatever your sensitivities are to, you may be able to lessen the intensity of your allergic conjunctivitis symptoms.
The majority of the time, your doctor can identify pink eye by asking you about your recent health history, symptoms, and eye exam.
Rarely, your doctor could remove a sample of the fluid that drains from your eye for a culture, a laboratory test. If your symptoms are severe or your doctor suspects a high-risk cause, like:
Both toddlers and adults may have corneal discomfort from pink eye, which may impair vision. Your doctor should examine and treat you very away in order to reduce your chance of issues. Should this be the case:
Preventative measures for conjunctivitis include:
It is a spectrum of ocular diseases due to Vitamin A deficiency.
The grading helps determine the severity of the condition. The signs are denoted by X and a subscript. They are
Q. why do we see decreased amplitude in ERG?
Ans. ERG represents the activity of layers of rods and cones. Since xerophthalmia affects rods and bipolar cells, ERG shows a dip in amplitude.
Bitots spot: is keratinised epithelia and infection by corynebacterium xerosis. It is more common on the temporal side:
Pale fundus restores its appearance when a person suffering from Oguchi’s disease stays in darkness for about an hour. The cause of the phenomenon is the overstimulation of rods.
It is conjunctival degeneration characterised by triangular fibrovascular subepithelial ingrowth of bulbar conjunctiva over the limbus. It occurs commonly on the nasal side.
What else does UVB cause?
In addition to pterygium, it can cause phot ophthalmia, also called snow blindness → UVB rays reflect off the snow and cause corneal epithelial erosion.
cut a portion of the conjunctiva in the upper or superior temporal quadrant, including limbal stem cells:
Stitch it over the affected area: conjunctiva at excised region regenerates.
It is a yellowish-white mound near the limbus formed by elastotic degeneration of conjunctival stroma
Keratoconjunctivitis sicca is the deficiency of the aqueous layer.
Rheumatoid arthritis is a connective tissue disorder, and its association with keratoconjunctivitis sicca leads to secondary Sjogren syndrome. Hence, patients with rheumatoid arthritis experience dry eye disorder.
To visualise tear meniscus height, which is the length of a triangular cross-section between lower lid margin and cornea.
They help visualize dead cells and mucus.
Low levels of lactoferrin indicate dry eye.
Measures the number of goblet cells.
A high value indicates a dry eye.
Treatment is either medical or surgical
|Lubricating eye drops containing methylcellulose derivatives, polyvinyl alcohol with povidone, and hyaluronate derivatives.Acetylcysteine to dissolve mucus.Cyclosporin for inflammation
|Lacrimal punctal occlusion.For temporary measure Collagen plug that can be dissolved in a few weeks.Silicone plugs for prolonged occlusion.For permanent measure thermal cautery of proximal canaliculate.
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