All babies achieve some fundamental milestones during the first few months of their development. If these milestones are not achieved, then it hints to some underlying development abnormality. Read this blog post to understand all the 9 types of development abnormalities.
Development and abnormalities related to it are an important and indispensable part of Pediatrics.
Abnormalities of Development (3 ‘D’ S)
When child’s performance in 1 or more domains is significantly below average or what is expected.
Substantial difference in the rate of development of milestones in 2 or more domains
Example: Isolated speech delay is a developmental dissociation since only language is hampered while all other domains are normal.
Developmental milestones occurring out of sequence.
Example: If Crawling comes before sitting.
Developmental Red Flags
The upper time limit by which the milestones should usually be attained.
Sitting with support
Standing with support
Walking with support
If these milestones are not attained by this time, then there is probably some underlying abnormality of development.
Important causes of Development delay (“CDGP PIC”)
C - Chromosomal abnormalities (Trisomy 21, 13, 18)
D -Developmental brain abnormalities (lissencephaly- brain appears smooth due to less gyri & sulci, myelomeningocele)
G - Genetic syndromes (Fragile X Syndrome, Rett syndrome, Prader Willi syndrome Nooram syndrome)
P - Perinatal factors: Asphyxia, HIE (Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy)
P - Postnatal factors and acquired: (CNS Trauma, infections, Hypothyroidism, malnutrition)
I - Inborn errors of Metabolism: Maple Syrup Urine Disease, organic Acidemia, Tay sachs disease, GM Gangliosidosis, Mucopolysaccharidosis
C - Congenital infections: TORCH group (Toxoplasmosis, Other agents, Rubella, CMV, Herpes)
Developmental quotient [D.Q.]
D.Q = Developmental age/Chronological age x 100
E.g. A child of 6 years of age has attained milestones of that of a 3 year old only. Calculate D.Q.
Solution: DQ = 3yr/ 6yr x 100 = 50
Screening Tests for Developmental Assessments
P - Phatak’s Baroda Screening Tests
A - Ages & stages questionaire
R - Revised DDST (Denver Developmental Screening Test)
T - Trivandrum development screening chart
Definitive Tests for Intellectual & Developmental Assessment
Name of test
Vineland adaptive behavior scale II
Birth to 89 years
Bayley scale for Infant development II
1 month-3.5 years
Stanford Binet Intelligence scale
2 years-85 years
Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children
6 years-17 years
Intelligence Quotient (IQ)
IQ = Mental age/ Chronological age x 100
51 – 70
36 – 50
21 – 35
0 – 20
50 – 70
30 – 50
The term mental disability is no longer used now.
It has been replaced by the term intellectual disability.
Significant impairment in intellectual functioning and social adapting
And that is it! That is everything you need to know about development abnormalities and its types. For more interesting and informative posts like these, keep reading PrepLadder blogs!
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