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Scrotal Masses: Causes, Symptoms, Risk Factors, Diagnosis, Treatment and Complications

Jan 10, 2024

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Causes Of Scrotal Masses

Symptoms Of Scrotal Masses

Risk Factors Of Scrotal Masses

Diagnosis of Scrotal Masses

Treatment Of Scrotal Masses


Non-cancerous tumors of the scrotum

Testicular cancer

Complications Of Scrotal Masses

Scrotal Masses Causes, Symptoms, Risk Factors, Diagnosis, Treatment and Complications

Scrotal masses are lumps that grow or form in the skin-covered pouch in the scrotum that houses the testicles.

Among the potential scrotal masses are:

  • A fluid accumulation.
  • Abnormal tissue proliferation.
  • Portions of the scrotum that are rough, enlarged, or inflammatory.

A scrotal tumor should always be checked out by a medical practitioner, even if there are no symptoms. Malignant cells have been found in some masses. Instead, they can be the result of another illness that impairs the general health and function of the testicles.

Examine your scrotum for changes each month. When you are getting regular exams, have the area checked as well. In this way, masses can be identified early on, when many treatments are most effective.

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Causes Of Scrotal Masses

Many medical conditions can be the cause of an unexpected change in the scrotum or a scrotal bulge. They include:

  • Hydrocele: This happens when the sac that surrounds each testicle fills with excess fluid. There is typically some fluid in this area. On the other hand, the scrotum may expand painlessly due to an effusion from a hydrocele. A hydrocele can be caused by an imbalance in the amounts of fluid that humans produce or absorb. An infection or injury to the scrotum usually causes this.A poorly closed hole between the scrotum and stomach area during development is usually the cause of a hydrocele in neonates.
  • Cancer of the testes: The testicles are the source of this kind of cancer. Often, it causes a scrotal enlargement or painless bump. Nonetheless, some individuals with testicular cancer don't show any signs at all. Get medical advice from your doctor or another professional if you find a new lump in your scrotum.
  • Orchitis: This is the place where inflammation affects the testicle and can result in pain and swelling. Usually, a viral illness—most frequently, the mumps—is at blame.
  • Hemotocele: This is a build-up of blood in each testicle's surrounding sac. An injury, like a blow to the testicles directly, is most likely the reason.
  • Varicocele: Enlargement of the scrotal vein is the cause of this. Varicocele is more common on the left side of the scrotum due to differences in blood flow between the two sides. A year of unprotected sexual encounters can lead to infertility, or the inability to conceive with your spouse because of a varicocele.
  • Spermatocele: It is common to find this sac filled with fluid over the testicles in the scrotum. Most of the time, it hurts nothing. Furthermore, it's usually not cancer. Spermatoceles are sometimes known as epididymal cysts or spermatic cysts.
  • Epididymitis: This is the moment of inflammation of the coiled tube behind the testicle, the epididymis. Bacterial infections commonly result in epididymitis. For instance, bacterial illnesses like chlamydia that are spread during sexual activity may be the cause. An uncommon cause of epididymitis is a virus.
  • Inguinal hernia: This happens when a section of the small intestine pushes through a weak spot or breach in the tissue that separates the stomach from the groin. It could appear as a mass in the groin or the scrotum higher up.
  • During childbirth, the gap between the stomach and the scrotum often does not close, which can result in an inguinal hernia in newborns.
  • Testicular torsion: The testicle's blood supply is cut off by this excruciating ailment. That is caused by the spermatic cord twisting. The tube that carries semen from the testicle to the penis is there, along with a group of nerves and blood arteries. If treatment for testicular torsion is not started right away, testicle loss could occur.

Also Read: Morton's Neuroma: Causes, Symptoms, Risk Factors, Diagnosis and Treatment

Symptoms Of Scrotal Masses

Symptoms of scrotal masses might vary. Not everyone hurts, but some do. In light of the cause. A scrotal lump may manifest as one of the following:

  • An abnormal growth.
  • Sudden discomfort.
  • A scrotal weight sensation or a dull ache.
  • Radiating discomfort to the stomach, groin, or lower back.
  • An edematous, stiffened, or painful epididymis or testicle (ep-ih-DID-uh-miss). The epididymis, a soft tube that resembles a comma and is situated behind and above the testicle, is responsible for hosting and transferring sperm.
  • Enlargement of the penis.
  • A difference between the scrotal skin.
  • Throwing up or feeling queasy.

The following symptoms may also be present in a scrotal enlargement linked to an infection:

  • High fever.
  • Frequent urination
  • Pus- or blood-filled urine.

Also Read: Bladder Exstrophy: Causes, Symptoms, Risk Factors, Diagnosis, Treatment and Complications

Risk Factors Of Scrotal Masses

An increased frequency of scrotal masses may result from the following conditions:

  • Testicles not yet descendant: A testicle that has not descended passes through the stomach area and does not enter the scrotum before or in the months after delivery.
  • Circumstances that preexist at birth: Congenital anomalies in the kidneys, penis, or testicles can affect certain individuals from birth. This could make testicular cancer and scrotal tumors more likely.
  • History of testicular cancer: If you have previously had testicular cancer in one testicle, your chances of developing it in the other testicle are increased. If one or more of your parents or siblings has had testicular cancer, your risk is up greatly.

Also Read: Adrenal Cancer: Causes, Symptoms, Risk Factors, Diagnosis and Treatment

Diagnosis of Scrotal Masses

These kinds of tests can be necessary to identify the kind of scrotal tumor you have.

  • A medical assessment: While a physician or other medical professional checks your groyne, its contents, and the surrounding areas, you will be asked to stand and lie down.
  • Transillumination is often known as passing through light: A bright light shined through the scrotum can reveal information regarding the composition, size, and location of a scrotal bulge.
  • Ultrasound: This exam generates an internal body image with the use of sound waves. It can give detailed information on the composition, dimensions, and location of a scrotal mass. It might also reveal the state of the testicles. An ultrasound is frequently used to identify a scrotal lump.
  • Urine analysis: Urine testing in the lab can identify a viral or bacterial infection. Urine tests can also detect the presence of blood or pus in the urine.
  • Analysis of blood: Using a blood sample, laboratory testing can identify whether a patient has a viral or bacterial illness. On the other hand, they might discover higher amounts of specific proteins linked to testicular cancer.
  • Computerized tomography, or CT scan: This series of X-rays is probably what you will have if further testing indicates that you have testicular cancer. A CT scan of your chest, abdomen, and groin can find any cancer metastases to other organs or tissues.

Also Read: Renal Artery Stenosis: Causes, Symptoms, Risk Factors, Diagnosis, Treatment and Complications

Treatment Of Scrotal Masses

The primary factor influencing the management of a scrotal tumor is its cause.


Antibiotics are drugs used to treat scrotal lumps caused by bacteria, which are often the consequence of epididymitis. Rest, ice, and painkillers are the usual treatments for viral infections that result in orchitis or epididymitis.

Non-cancerous tumors of the scrotum

One could call these benign lumps. Sometimes, they are capable of self-healing. They occasionally need to be surgically removed, repaired, or drained. Options for treatment depend on a number of factors, such as whether the scrotal mass:

  • Causes discomfort or pain.
  • Either makes infertility more likely or aids in it.
  • Becomes tainted.

Testicular cancer

In the event that testicular cancer is the cause of your scrotal tumor, you will likely see an oncologist, a specialist in cancer. The oncologist may recommend different treatments depending on whether the cancer is limited to the testicle or has spread to other parts of the body. Other pertinent factors are your age and overall health.

The principal alternatives for therapy include:

  • Severe excision of the inguinals: This is the major treatment plan for testicular cancer. The affected testicle and the spermatic cord are surgically removed through a groin incision. The lymph nodes may also need to be removed if the cancer has spread to your stomach region.
  • Chemotherapy: This uses powerful chemicals to attack cancer cells. A needle is routinely inserted into a vein to give chemotherapy. Treatment for testicular cancer that has spread outside of the testicle is common. It's also used to lessen the chance that cancer will return after surgery to remove the testicles. Testicular cancer cannot be treated with chemotherapy alone.
  • Radiation therapy: It uses high-dose X-rays or other high-energy radiation to target specific body areas. This has the ability to either kill or inhibit the growth of cancer cells. In testicular cancer cases, radiation therapy is mostly utilized to destroy cancer cells that have spread to lymph nodes. This course of treatment may be recommended by your clinician following testicle removal surgery.

Most cases of early testicular cancer are treatable. Moreover, if the disease spreads outside the testicle, it may still be treated. You will, nevertheless, need to be closely examined in case the cancer reappears.

Also Read: Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumours: Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment

Complications Of Scrotal Masses

Not all scrotal lumps cause long-term health problems. On the other hand, any malignancy endangering the testicle's health or function could result in:

  • Insufficient or postponed growth throughout adolescence.
  • Problems with fertility.

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