Today we will discuss 75th Hyderabad Liberation Day Program in our today's edition of Current Affairs. Read further to upgrade your UPSC CSE knowledge and also understand the topic’s relevance to the UPSC syllabus.
For Prelims: Hyderabad Liberation Day, Operation Caterpillar, Operation Polo,
For Mains: Hyderabad Liberation Day, Operation Caterpillar, Operation Polo, State Reorganization, Razakars.
Give a historical account of the accession of princely states to India in the post-Independence period.
Recently, the Union Home and Cooperation Minister participated in the 75th Hyderabad Liberation Day celebrations in Telangana.
About the Hyderabad Liberation Day
- It is also known as the ‘Telangana Liberation Day’.
- The state of Hyderabad got its independence from Nizam’s rule on September 17, 1948.
How did Hyderabad State Become a Part of India
- British India was a mix of independent kingdoms and provinces that were given the options of joining India, Pakistan, or remaining independent, at the time of India’s independence.
- At that time, the Nizam of Hyderabad, one of the richest people in the world at the time, was not ready to let go of his kingdom.
- Meanwhile, the feudal nature of the state, caused the peasant population to suffer high taxes, indignities of forced labor, and various other kinds of exploitation.
- The Andhra Jan Sangham was simultaneously demanding for the Telugu language to be given primacy over Urdu.
- Then the organization became the Andhra Mahasabha (AMS), and Communists became associated with it and built a peasant movement against the Nizam that found local support.
- On the other hand, Nizam’s closest aid, Quasim Razvi formed a militia of the ‘razakars’, to suppress the peasant and communist movement, launching a brutal attack.
- India officially launched ‘Operation Polo’ on September 13th, as the Nizam’s were importing more arms and the violence of the Razakars approaching dangerous proportions.
- On September 17, three days after the deployment, the Nizam surrendered and acceded to the Indian Union in November.
- The Government of India retained Nizam, as the official ruler of the state and was given a privy purse of five million rupees.
Read yesterday’s edition of Current Affairs on The Process of Inclusion or Exclusion from the Scheduled Tribes List, in case you missed reading it.
The Legacy of Operation Polo
- The operation is also called “Operation Caterpillar” to liberate Hyderabad.
- Over 36,000 Indian troops deployed in Hyderabad, took over the powerful state of Hyderabad within 5 days.
- On September 17, 1948, the Nizam ordered a ceasefire and signed the instrument of accession with the government of India.
- Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel described the idea of Operation Polo for independent Hyderabad as "an ulcer in the heart of India which needed to be removed surgically".
News Source: PIB, The Indian Express
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