Jan 23, 2023
Weather is about day to day changes in the atmosphere. It includes changes in temperature, rainfall, sunshine, etc. Having proper understanding of India’s climate, vegetation and wildlife is of utmost importance for IAS aspirants. Read this article wherein we have covered all these important aspects and add more knowledge to your UPSC CSE preparation.
Climate is about the average weather condition, which has been measured over many years. The climate of India has broadly been described as Monsoon type. Monsoon is taken from the Arabic word ‘mausim’, which means seasons.
The climate of a place is affected by its location, altitude, distance from the sea and relief. Therefore, regional differences in the climate of India are experienced.
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The southwest monsoon winds, also known as the southwest monsoon, is a seasonal wind that blows from the southwest to the northeast in the Indian subcontinent. These winds bring rainfall to the region from June to September. The monsoon is caused by the difference in pressure between the warm Bay of Bengal and the cooler Arabian Sea. The wind coming from the bay of Bengal, which is warmer and therefore less dense, causes the air to rise which causes the formation of clouds, resulting in rainfall.
The northeast monsoon winds, also known as the northeast monsoon, is a seasonal wind that blows from the northeast to the southwest in the Indian subcontinent. These winds bring rainfall to the region from October to December, mostly in the coastal areas of Tamil Nadu, Puducherry, and Andhra Pradesh.
Rainfall is important for India for several reasons. Firstly, it is the primary source of water for irrigation, drinking, and other uses. The monsoons are crucial for the agricultural sector of India, as it supports the cultivation of crops such as rice, wheat, and sugarcane. Secondly, it also supports the hydropower generation, as the monsoons fill the reservoirs which are used to generate electricity. Thirdly, rainfall replenishes the groundwater and surface water resources, which are important for the survival of aquatic life and ecosystems.
In summary, India receives rainfall from two winds, southwest monsoon winds, and northeast monsoon winds. Monsoons are crucial for the agricultural sector, hydropower generation, replenishment of groundwater and surface water resources, and hence it is vital for the country's economic and ecological well-being.
According to the UPSC syllabus, the different seasons in India are:
According to the UPSC syllabus, India is home to a diverse range of natural vegetation types that are determined by a combination of factors such as climate, soil type, and topography. The following is a list of some of the major natural vegetation types found in India:
All above mentioned vegetation have their own importance in terms of their ecological balance and biodiversity they contribute.
Evergreen forests are characterized by trees that retain their leaves year-round, while deciduous forests are characterized by trees that shed their leaves annually. Additionally, evergreen forests tend to have a more consistent temperature and rainfall throughout the year, while deciduous forests experience a distinct change in climate between seasons. In terms of biodiversity, evergreen forests are typically more diverse, with a wider variety of plant and animal species present than deciduous forests.
Tropical rainforests are also referred to as evergreen forests because the majority of the trees within these forests are evergreen, meaning they retain their leaves year-round. This is due to the consistent warm temperatures and high levels of rainfall found in tropical rainforests, which allows for the growth of a wide variety of plant species that do not need to adapt to seasonal changes in climate. Additionally, the high levels of precipitation in tropical rainforests help to support the growth of a diverse array of plant species, many of which are evergreen. This results in a lush, dense canopy that is characterized by a constant covering of green leaves.
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