Feb 21, 2023
The cerebellum plays a critical role in coordinating and fine-tuning voluntary movements, including posture, balance, and limb coordination. The cerebellum is also involved in several cognitive processes, including attention, language, and working memory.
A thorough understanding of the cerebellar pathway and its components is essential for diagnosing and treating motor disorders.
Due to injury to spinocerebellar tract [anterior lobe] there are present Uncoordinated clumsy movements like patient is not able to walk in straight line [loss of coordination] and also Keep falling towards side of lesion. in these patients the HEEL SHIN TEST positive , in this we Ask the patient to move his heel on his Shin if he is Unable to do so then this test is considered to be POSITIVE.
Cerebellum present in posterior cranial fossa . It is Leaf like [foliated ] structure Present at the roof of the 4th ventricle. It Attaches to the brain stem with the help of peduncles.
A midline vermis separates the cerebellum's left and right hemispheres. The cerebellum has folia, or folds, and fissures on its outside, which give it a wavy look. The cerebellum's lobes are separated by some of the fissures, which serve as landmarks:
LOBES of cerebellum:
Tracts carried by peduncles are:
→ Rt. LL moving
Rt. dorsal spinocerebellar tract activated
positional sense carried towards rt. cerebellum
cerebellum communication with C/L thalamus via dentato thalamic tract
Thalamus communicates with left cerebellum
Rt. LL moved by Lt. cerebellum via cortico spinal tract [crossing occurs in lower medulla]
Numerous of these fibres are derived from the spinal cord, vestibular nuclei, and pontine nuclei. These fibres connect excitably to the granule cells and deep cerebellar nuclei. Mossy fibres attach to the granule cells' dendrites. 'Glomeruli' are composed of mossy fibres and golgi cells. These fibres originate in the deep nuclei and enter the cerebellum from there. Additionally, they do so through Purkinje cells, parallel fibres, and granule cells, which project to the deep nuclei.
|Archicerebellum (oldest part)||Flocculonodular lobe+lingual||Nucleus fastigii (Fish)||Vestibulocerebellar||Maintenance of equilibrium (responsible for maintaining the position of body in space)|
|Paleocerebellum (in between, i.e. neither oldest nor newest)||Whole of anterior lobe except lingual pyramid Uvula||Nucleus interpositus consisting of nucleus globosus and nucleus emboliformis||Spinocerebellar||Controls clued movements of the limbs|
|Neocerebellum (most recent part)||Whole of posterior lobe except pyramid and uvula||Nucleus dentatus||Corticoponto cerebellar||Smooth performance of highly skilled voluntary movements of precision|
3 Layer and 5 cells in cerebellar cortex
Flask shaped cells with multiple projections into outer molecular layer
Fibers reach cerebellum Synapses with granule cells which communicate with remaining cell fibers. Granule cells use parallel fibers to communicate with other cells. Purkinje cells can only reach the DEFG nucleus. Most of mossy fibers runs as dorsal/ ventral spinocerebellar tract & reaches ipsilateral cerebellum and Very few crosses midline in spinal cord & runs as ventral/ anterior spinocerebellar tract & recrossing occurs within cerebellum and reaches ipsilateral cerebellum. Dorsal spinocerebellar tract uses inferior peduncle & reaches I/L cerebellum. Ventral spinocerebellar tract uses superior peduncle & reaches C/L cerebellum but recrossing occurs & reaches I/L cerebellum again. Climbing fibers Comes from inferior olivary nucleus of medulla oblongata and goes to purkinje cell in cerebellar cortex.
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