Aug 23, 2023
The female reproductive system is one of the most important components of the human reproductive process. The primary reproductive organs in women are the vagina, uterus, ovaries, and fallopian tubes. Although a male is necessary for reproduction, a woman carries the growing fetus and gives birth to the child.
Females have a significant number of potential eggs (sometimes referred to as egg cells or female sex cells) from birth. However, until after the start of puberty, often around age 12, these cells are not adequately developed to support life. One of the regularly growing cells is expelled each month until a woman approaches menopause.
Female Genitalia includes:
There are various functions that are performed by the female reproductive system. It facilitates sexual activity and helps in reproduction.
Eggs are made by your ovaries. When you ovulate, these eggs are then moved to your fallopian tube where sperm may fertilize them. The fertilized egg then travels to your uterus, where the uterine lining has expanded in response to the regular hormones of your menstrual cycle (also known as your reproductive cycle), which is when you get your period.
The fertilized egg can grow further inside your uterus by implanting it into the thicker uterine lining. The uterine lining is shed throughout your menstrual period if implantation does not occur. Additionally, sex hormones produced by the female reproductive system keep your menstrual cycle regular.
In the course of menopause, the female reproductive system eventually ceases producing the female hormones required for the menstrual cycle to function. Menstrual cycles may then start to fluctuate and may end altogether at this time. When a woman has gone a full year without having a menstrual period, she is said to be menopausal.
Both external and internal parts make up the female reproductive anatomy.
Your external genitals serve two purposes: to keep the internal organs healthy and to let sperm enter your vagina.
All of your exterior genitals are collectively referred to as your vulva. Many individuals incorrectly refer to all female reproductive organs as "vagina." Your vagina, on the other hand, is a separate internal body structure.
Your vulva, or external genitalia, consists primarily of the following parts:
Uterus is seen from the posterior view because ovaries are seen from the posterior view. The cervix is circular in nullipara. In the case of multipara, the cervix will become a transverse slit (Babies are already passed through the cervix or vagina).
The double fold of the peritoneum will cover the uterus and forms broad ligaments which support the uterus. The peritoneal folds support the uterus poorly. Round ligaments also support the uterus poorly. There are three accident supports for the uterus (good support) are:
Mesenteries stabilize the female reproductive system which includes:
Meso means a mesentery a double fold of peritoneum to suspend some organs. The ovary is present on the posterior side and it is covered by the peritoneum, Suspended posteriorly from the broad ligament.
The broad ligament is present in the inferiorly. Mesentery carries the neurovascular bundles. Mesosalpinx helps to suspend the uterine tube superiorly.
Sometime, Ureter can be compromised. The abdominal aorta gives the ovarian arteries to the ovaries. Ovarian artery anastomosis with the uterine artery to supply the uterus and uterine tube. The uterine artery came from the anterior division of the internal iliac artery. The uterine artery supplies the part of the vagina and ovaries.
While operating ureter may be damaged. Ureter comes from the renal pelvis kidney. The water under the bridge, in this water, is urine and the bridge is formed by the uterine artery. Ureter works under the uterine artery posteriorly. While removing the uterus, need to litigate the uterine artery. Don’t ligate the ureter or damage the ureter inside. Ureter can be observed by the fact that it has some peristaltic movement.
It is 14cm long within the uterus it is called the myometrium. The intramural part is shorter with 1cm. Isthmus is 3 cm and further it is ampulla with 5 cm, and it becomes the 1 cm infundibulum. The fimbriated end is present at the infundibulum region.
Fertilization occurs in the ampulla of the fallopian tube. In which sperm fuse with the secondary oocyte. It begins with one cm and ends with another 1 cm. The anatomical sphincter is an isthmus, OR the intramural part.
The isthmus act as an anatomical sphincter for not allowing conceptus to pass towards the uterine cavity. It is also done by the intramural part. Preferred- Isthmus >> Intramural part.
Abdominal aorta bifurcates into the common iliac artery which itself bifurcates into
Internal iliac artery gives the anterior division gives the uterine artery. It also gives the vaginal artery to the vagina. The uterine artery follows upward and supplies the uterine tube and anastomose to the ovarian artery.
The ovarian artery will send the blood to the territory of the uterine tube and the territory of the uterus.
Uterine artery is present on the left and right sides which gives some radial arteries around the uterine region First the uterine tube will give you the arcuate artery and this arcuate artery further forms the radial artery.
The radial artery will further give the basal artery. This basal artery remains at the basal endometrium, and it will not be sloughed during the menstrual cycle and remain stuck to the endometrium. This basal artery will form a lot of vascular layers which are known as the stratum vasculare.
The spiral arteries are sloughed with the endometrium is deeper. It is the innermost region of the endometrium that sloughs off during the menstrual cycle. These spiral arteries are spiral-shaped to stop the bleeding.
Supports of Pelvic Viscera
Pelvic fascia condensation called Sacrocervical ligament posteriorly or uterosacral ligaments. The pubocervical ligament will come anteriorly (Pubic bone and the cervix of the uterus). The round ligament of the uterus pulls the uterus anteriorly such that the uterus folds on itself (Angle of anteflexion or anteversion). This round ligament works along with the Sacrocervical ligament.
Long axis of the vagina is making the angle with the long angle of the cervix. The angle is 90 degrees. This is known as anteversion. Due to this round ligament, the uterus is pulled anteriorly. The sacrocervical ligament is pulling posteriorly.
The body of the uterus is folded on the longitudinal axis of the cervix. Between them the angle of the Anteflexion is present it may be 120 or 170 degrees, But the preferred answer is 120 degrees. This is the normal position of the uterus to prevent the prolapse of the uterus. If it is retroverted then we are increasing the chances of the prolapse of the uterus. So vagina into the perineum ureterocele procidentia.
It includes the transverse cervical ligament of Mackenrodt. The sacrocervical ligament is located posteriorly, or it is called the uterosacral ligament. The cervix of the uterus is located in the middle. To support this lateral or transverse muscles attach lateral to the pelvic wall In the uterine cervix, the pubocervical ligament is present.
Anteriorly pubis bone is present. Laterally bone is known as the ilium or ischium bone. Posteriorly, sacrum, coccyx bone. The cervix of the uterus is located in the middle. To support the uterus, lateral cervical ligaments move laterally to the pelvic wall. This lateral cervical ligament is also known as the transverse cervical ligament of Mackenrodt. The pubocervical ligament attaches to the cervix of the uterus for support. The sacrocervical ligament is also attached to the cervix of the uterus. Not only the uterus they are also supporting the urinary bladder anteriorly and the rectum posteriorly (supports the pelvic viscera).
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