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Bleeding Disorder Types, Causes, Treatment, and Symptoms

Aug 21, 2023

Bleeding Disorder types symptoms causes

A bleeding disorder is a condition that interferes with how your blood typically clots. Blood turns from a liquid to a solid during the clotting process, also known as coagulation. Your blood typically starts to clot after an injury to stop a large blood loss. Blood can't always clot properly, which can lead to excessive or protracted bleeding.

Both inside and outside of the body, bleeding disorders can lead to abnormal bleeding. The amount of blood exiting your body can significantly rise due to several diseases. Others can induce bleeding beneath the skin or in important organs including the brain.

When blood cannot clot properly, bleeding disorders frequently occur. Your body requires blood proteins called clotting factors and blood cells called platelets for blood to clot. At the site of a damaged or injured blood artery, platelets typically congregate to form a clog. After that, the clotting elements combine to create a fibrin clot. By doing so, blood is kept from leaking out of the blood vessel and the platelets are kept in situ.

However, the clotting factors or platelets are insufficient or do not function as they should in persons with bleeding problems. Excessive or protracted bleeding can happen when the blood doesn't clot. It may also result in sudden or spontaneous bleeding in the muscles, joints, or other bodily parts.

Types Of Bleeding Disorder

Both inherited and acquired bleeding diseases exist. Genetics has a role in the transmission of inherited illnesses. Acquired disorders may voluntarily manifest later in life or develop over time. Some bleeding disorders have the potential to produce severe bleeding after an accident or injury. Some bleeding conditions might result in substantial bleeding after an accident or injury. In some disorders, sudden, heavy bleeding may happen without notice.

Out of all the different types of bleeding problems, these are the most typical ones:

  • Haemophilia A and haemophilia B are illnesses that can be brought on by low levels of clotting components in your blood. Joint bleeding, either significant or infrequent, is the outcome. Despite being a rare condition, haemophilia can have devastating effects.
  • Problems with blood coagulation or abnormal bleeding are related to bleeding disorders brought on by deficiencies in factors II, V, VII, X, or XII.
  • The most prevalent inherited bleeding illness is Von Willebrand's disease. It occurs when the blood lacks the von Willebrand factor, which helps in blood clotting.

Causes Of Bleeding Disorder

Most bleeding problems are inherited, which means that they are passed from one parent to another through the child. Some ailments, including liver disease, however, may arise as a result of other illnesses.

Bleeding problems can also result from

low levels of red blood cells

vitamin K insufficiency

adverse effects from specific drugs

Anticoagulants are drugs that have the potential to prevent blood from clotting.

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Symptoms Of Bleeding Disorder

Depending on the particular type of bleeding condition, there may be a wide range of symptoms. The following are the primary indications:

  • Bruising that is sudden and easy
  • excessive menstrual bleeding
  • frequently bleeding noses
  • profuse bleeding resulting from minor cuts or injuries that enter joints

If any of these symptoms apply to you, make an appointment with your doctor immediately once. 

Your doctor can determine the cause of your issue and offer advice on how to avoid the problems that some blood abnormalities can cause.

Diagnosis Of Bleeding Disorder

Your doctor will inquire about your symptoms and medical background in order to make a diagnosis of a bleeding issue. Additionally, a physical examination will be done. Be sure to mention the following during your appointment:

  • Any medical issues
  • Any vitamins or medications you may be using
  • Any recent accidents or injuries
  • How frequently do you experience bleeding
  • When the bleeding began, what you were doing
  • How long it lasts

Your doctor will order blood tests after gathering this data to establish a thorough diagnosis. These tests could consist of:

  • A bleeding time test, which analyses how quickly blood clots to prevent bleeding
  • A complete blood count (CBC), which counts the number of red and white blood cells in your body
  • A platelet aggregation test, which examines how effectively your platelets cluster together

Treatment Of Bleeding Disorder

Depending on the nature and severity of the bleeding issue, different treatments are available. Although there is no cure for bleeding disorders, many conditions' symptoms may be lessened with the aid of medicines.

supplementation with iron

If you experience considerable blood loss, your doctor may advise iron supplements to restore the iron levels in your body. Iron deficiency anaemia can be caused by low iron levels. You might experience weakness, exhaustion, and lightheadedness as a result of this illness. If symptoms don't go away after taking iron supplements, you might require a blood transfusion.

Transfusion of blood

A blood transfusion replaces any lost blood with blood obtained from a donor. To avoid difficulties, the donated blood must match your blood type. Only hospitals are permitted to do this treatment.

Other therapies

Certain bleeding disorders may be treated with topical medicines or nasal sprays. Factor replacement treatment is an effective way to treat a variety of conditions, including haemophilia. This entails giving you a bloodstream injection of clotting factor concentrates. These injections have the ability to stop or reduce excessive bleeding.

If you are deficient in particular clotting factors, you can also receive fresh frozen plasma transfusions. Factors V and VIII, two crucial proteins that aid in blood clotting, are present in fresh frozen plasma. In a hospital, these transfusions must be performed.

Complications Of  Bleeding Disorder

The majority of bleeding disorder-related consequences are treatable and can be avoided or reduced. However, it's critical to receive therapy as soon as you can. Too late treatment for bleeding problems frequently results in complications.

Typical side effects of bleeding problems include:

  • gastrointestinal bleeding
  • bleeding inside the head
  • joint discomfort and bleeding

Additionally, if the condition is severe or results in considerable blood loss, complications may also occur.

Women are especially vulnerable to bleeding disorders, especially if they are not treated right away. The chance of heavy bleeding during childbirth, a miscarriage, or an abortion rises if bleeding disorders are left untreated. Extremely excessive menstrual bleeding can occur in women with bleeding disorders.

As a result, your body may not create enough red blood cells to supply oxygen to your tissues, which can result in anaemia. Weakness, breathlessness, and vertigo are all symptoms of anaemia.

Endometriosis can cause a woman to lose a lot of blood, which she might not be able to see since it is hidden in the pelvic or abdominal region.

If you experience any indications of a bleeding condition, you should contact your doctor straight away. Any potential issues can be avoided by seeking treatment right away.

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