Irritable Bowel Syndrome Symptoms, Treatment, and Causes
Jul 11, 2023
A group of illnesses collectively known as "inflammatory bowel disease" attack the intestines and cause persistent inflammation. IBD covers both Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. The digestive system is impacted by each type. This chronic sickness can be managed with the use of treatments. Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are the two primary IBD subtypes. Several kinds include:
Crohn's diseaseThe digestive system can become inflamed and painful as a result of Crohn's disease. Any region, including the mouth and anus, is susceptible. The organs most usually impacted are the small intestine and the upper part of the large intestine.
Patients with ulcerative colitis experience an expansion of their large intestine and ulcers.
Microscopic colitis results in intestinal inflammation, which can only be seen under a microscope.
Read this blog further to get a quick overview of this important topic for medicine and ace your NEET PG exam preparation.
CAUSES OF IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME:
It is unclear what causes IBD specifically. Inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract is probably brought on by a combination of genetics, the immune system, and something in the environment. Stress and diet may exacerbate symptoms but are unlikely to be the primary causes of inflammatory bowel disease.
IBD frequently occurs in families. Although IBD can occur at any age, it is typically recognized in adolescents and young adults.
SYMPTOMS OF IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME:
A person with IBD will typically experience periods when the disease flares up and causes symptoms, followed by intervals when symptoms lessen or go away and good health returns. The severity of the symptoms varies depending on which region of the intestinal tract is affected, and they can be minor to severe. They consist of:
abdominal discomfort and cramps
potentially bloody diarrhea
extreme urgency to go to the toilet
Loss of weight
deficit in iron linked to blood loss, anemia
DIAGNOSIS OF IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME?
For the diagnosis of IBD, there is no one test. Your doctor may suggest a combination of the following to make the diagnosis because the symptoms of IBD and a number of other illnesses, such as infections and other digestive system disorders, overlap.
comprehensive physical exam, family history, and health history
biopsies during upper endoscopy
examination of a stool sample
imaging (CT scans, MRIs, or X-rays)
blood tests Tests for well-known IBD biomarkers (such the antibodies ASCA and ANCA) and other substances that indicate inflammation may be part of your work-up. Blood tests can detect IBD and, in certain situations, make predictions about the severity of the condition and the frequency of relapses in the future.
TREATMENT OF IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME:
IBD must be treated with medications. Most IBD patients will require taking at least one medication continuously. The aim is to lessen flare-ups, stop inflammation, and ease symptoms.
Even if you start to feel better, it's crucial to take IBD drugs as directed. The better the long-term outcomes, especially in those with Crohn's disease, the earlier medicine is started.
Immunosuppressants for IBD: These medications are prescribed for moderate to severe IBD and work to stop the immune system's attack on the intestine.
Topical anti-inflammatory drugs: These drugs, which come in the form of suppositories or enema solutions, can aid in reducing diarrhea and fecal incontinence. They are particularly helpful for mild-to-moderate instances of IBD and typically have extremely low hazards.
discomfort relief: It might be difficult to treat stomach discomfort. Controlling inflammation leads to the reduction of pain.
Certain antibiotics can help cure abscesses, anal fistulas (abnormal tunnels connecting the anal canal and the surrounding organs), inflammation of the pouch following Crohn's disease surgery, and mild-to-moderate Crohn's disease patients.
Steroids: Steroids can help with IBD symptoms and flare-ups when used with other anti-inflammatory medications. However, due to their severe side effects, which include a higher risk of infections and strictures, osteoporosis, diabetes, obesity, and more, they should only be used as a short-term remedy.
If drugs are unable to reduce the inflammation, the intestines may eventually suffer damage, which will worsen symptoms and increase the need for surgery. At some time in their lives, almost half of those with IBD may require surgery to:
Eliminate intestinal segments that have been harmed by protracted inflammation. In order to prevent short bowel syndrome, the surgeons work to preserve adequate intestines for your body to absorb food nutrients. IBD patients who are really unwell may require significant intestinal removal as well as a stoma, a surgically formed opening in the body for the disposal of waste.
Fix fistulas, abscesses, strictures, or obstructions.
Depending on the patient, different portions of the gut may require treatment and different reasons may warrant surgery. The bottom is typically affected by Crohn's illness.
Fix fistulas, abscesses, strictures, or obstructions.
Depending on the patient, different portions of the gut may require treatment and different reasons may warrant surgery. The terminal ilium, or bottom of the small intestine where it connects to the large intestine, is typically impacted by Crohn's disease. Colon and rectum involvement is present in ulcerative colitis. When possible, laparoscopic (less invasive) operations are preferred since they can lower complications.
COMPLICATIONS OF IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME:
IBD can cause a number of significant gastrointestinal issues, such as:
significant intestinal bleeding caused by the ulcers
rupture or perforation of the bowel
Obstruction and narrowing of the bowel, also known as strictures, are symptoms of perianal illness, a condition that affects the tissue surrounding the anus, as well as Crohn's fistulae (abnormal channels). Compared to ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease is more common than these disorders.
Toxic megacolon, a dangerously enlarged colon that poses a risk to life. Compared to Crohn's, this is more often connected with ulcerative colitis.
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