Sep 27, 2023
Malignant hyperthermia is a serious adverse reaction to several anaesthetic medications. This extreme response frequently involves symptoms such as an abnormally high body temperature, rigid muscles or spasms, a quick heartbeat, and others. Malignant hyperthermia consequences might be lethal if not treated right away.
The gene that makes you susceptible to malignant hyperthermia is often inherited, while it can occasionally arise as the result of a random genetic change. If you have a gene that is affected, genetic testing will indicate it. Malignant hyperthermia Susceptibility (MHS) is the name of this hereditary condition.
Malignant hyperthermia can be treated with supportive care, dantrolene (Dantrium, Revonto, Ryanodex), and other methods of reducing body temperature.
Until you are exposed to certain anaesthetic medicines, you often don't show any indications or symptoms of being at risk of malignant hyperthermia.
A genetic disease called malignant hyperthermia susceptibility (MHS), which is brought on by a gene change (mutation), can result in malignant hyperthermia. The defective gene raises your risk of developing malignant hyperthermia when you are exposed to specific anaesthetic medications which trigger a response.
The affected gene is most frequently inherited, typically from one affected parent. Less frequently, a random gene alteration causes the affected gene rather than an inherited condition.
MHS may be caused by various genes. RYR1 is the gene that is frequently affected. CACNA1S and STAC3 are two less often affected genes.
Malignant hyperthermia can present with a variety of symptoms during surgery, anaesthesia, or the early postoperative recovery period. Among them are:
Rarely, individuals at risk for malignant hyperthermia have experienced symptoms following intense physical activity in conditions of high temperatures or humidity, when suffering from a viral infection, or when using statin drugs for reducing cholesterol.
Having a family member with MHS increases your risk of developing a genetic condition.
To be affected by this condition (autosomal dominant inheritance pattern), only one altered gene from a parent is required. You have a 50% risk of developing MHS if one of your parents carries the gene alteration that results in the disease.
Additionally increased is your likelihood of having MHS if you have other family members who are suffering from MHS. Additionally, if you or a close family has:
Diagnostic criteria for malignant hyperthermia include signs and symptoms, observation during and immediately after anaesthesia, and blood tests to look for complications.
If you have risk factors, it may be advised to undergo susceptibility testing to see whether you have a higher risk of developing malignant hyperthermia. A muscle biopsy test or genetic testing are both options for testing.
It's important that you inform your doctor and anesthesiologist before receiving anaesthesia if you or a member of your family has malignant hyperthermia susceptibility (MHS) or if you believe you may be at risk for the condition. Your anaesthesia may involve the use of medications that don't cause malignant hyperthermia.
Malignant hyperthermia should be treated right away with the following:
Exercise in excessive heat and humidity could result in another reaction if you have already suffered malignant hyperthermia as a result of specific anaesthesia medicines. Discuss what precautions you need to take with your healthcare professional.
To find out if you have a genetic condition that puts you at risk for malignant hyperthermia, consult with your doctor about whether you should also undergo genetic testing. Ask members of the close family to also think about undergoing genetic testing.
Wear a medical alert necklace or bracelet if you suffer from the genetic condition MHS, which increases your chance of developing malignant hyperthermia. This informs medical professionals of your risk, particularly during an emergency when you might not be able to communicate.
Before having surgery or undergoing any operation requiring anaesthesia, let your doctor or anesthesiologist know if you have a family history of malignant hyperthermia or a relative who has issues with anaesthesia.
Your anesthesiologist may recommend staying away from some anaesthesia medicines by evaluating your risk of malignant hyperthermia.
Malignant hyperthermia has the potential to cause serious problems, including:
To scale up your NEET PG exam preparation with the best-in-class video lectures, QBank, Mock Tests and more, download the PrepLadder App!
Download PrepLadder's NEET PG app for Android
Download PrepLadder's NEET PG app for iOS
Get access to all the essential resources required to ace your medical exam Preparation. Stay updated with the latest news and developments in the medical exam, improve your Medical Exam preparation, and turn your dreams into a reality!
The most popular search terms used by aspirants