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Group A Streptococcal Infections : Types, Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment

Jul 21, 2023

Group A Streptococcal Infections : Types, Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment : Microbiology

A bacterium (bacteria) that enters your body and produces a sickness, most frequently in your skin and throat, is known as a group A streptococcal (GAS) infection. The bacteria that causes group A streptococcal infections, or group A streptococcal infections, has more than 120 different strains.

The majority of GAS bacteria-related diseases are minor. GAS infections can occasionally result in severe, potentially fatal symptoms if you don't get treatment.

Group A streptococcal (GAS) infections come in a variety of forms, and they can vary from minor illnesses like a sore throat to serious or even life-threatening disorders.

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Types of Group A Streptococcal Infections

Mild conditions include:

  • An infection that targets tissues deep within your skin is called cellulitis.
  • An infection that affects the epidermis is called erysipelas.
  • Impetigo: Sores and blisters that develop on your arms, legs, or in the vicinity of your mouth and nose.
  • Your throat may be sore and uncomfortable.
  • An infection of the tonsils and throat is strep throat.

Severe strep infections

Severe infections caused by the strep bacteria include:

  • Bacteremia, an infection of the bloodstream.
  • A virus that raises the temperature and causes a rash, sore throat, and scarlet fever.
  • Infections affecting several organs (toxic shock syndrome).
  • Your heart and joints have inflamed tissues (rheumatic fever).
  • Necrotizing fasciitis, or the flesh-eating illness.

Signs and Symptoms of Group A Streptococcal Infections

Depending on the infection that the group A streptococcus bacteria causes, the symptoms can vary in severity. Group A streptococcal infection mild signs and symptoms include:

  • Trouble swallowing or discomfort during swallowing.
  • Headache.
  • Your moth's (petechiae) roof has little red markings on it.
  • Throat pain.
  • Stomachache.
  • Swollen lymph nodes or tonsils.

Symptoms of Skin Infections

Skin-related symptoms from a group A infection with streptococcus includes:

  • Your neck, underarms, or groin may be rashy.
  • Small, erythematous lesions on the arms, legs, lips, nose, or throat.
  • Rough skin.
  • Lesions that ooze clear to yellow pus or fluid.
  • Over the lesions, rusty yellow scabs develop.

Extreme Signs of a Group A Infection with Streptococcus includes:

  • Diarrhea.
  • Dizziness.
  • Fever.
  • Your skin develops large sores, blisters, or dark areas.
  • Vomiting or nauseous.
  • Severe discomfort that is not limited to the wound.
  • Skin color alterations (purple to red).
  • Skin that is heated to the touch or that swells (puffs up).

Causes of Group A Streptococcal Infection

Group A streptococcal infections are brought on by Group A Streptococcus bacteria.

Your immune system is in charge of protecting your body from intruders from the outside, such as germs, which cause illness. You become ill when bacteria infect your body. Your immune system fights the germs at the same time to lessen the damage it can do to your body.

Your healthcare provider may prescribe medication like antibiotics to help you feel better sooner since your immune system occasionally needs a little assistance eliminating bacteria that are already present in your body.

Diagnosis of Group A Streptococcal Infection

Depending on the sort of infection you have, a diagnosis must be made. Your doctor will first assess your symptoms and perform a physical examination. They'll quiz you about your symptoms, including their severity and length of time.

Your doctor may suggest additional tests to verify a diagnosis, such as:

  • An examination of the blood for infection.
  • A quick test or culture test that swabs your throat and examines the microorganisms found there under a microscope.
  • A tissue sample used in a biopsy to check for infections.
  • An imaging examination, such as an MRI, CT scan, or ultrasound, to examine the infection's effects beneath your skin.

Treatment of Group A Streptococcal Infection

Group A streptococcal infections are often treated with antibiotics. Depending on the sort of illness you have, your doctor will prescribe one of two different antibiotics to treat it. You might be given a topical (to be applied directly to the sores) or oral (to be taken as a pill) antibiotic.

Antibiotics have a number of advantages that can help you recover from an infection, including:

  • Reducing the duration of your illness.
  • Decreasing symptoms.
  • Limiting the spread of the bacterium.
  • Avoiding problems and serious sickness.

Group A streptococcal infections can be treated with a variety of medications, including:

  • (Penicillin, Amoxicillin, Benzathine) Antibiotics.
  • Alternatives to penicillin for those who are allergic to it include cephalexin, cefadroxil, clindamycin, azithromycin, and clarithromycin.
  • Topical ointments (retapamulin, mupirocin).

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