Ultimate NEET-PG Exam Study Material

Proven Effective Content with 96% Strike Rate

Necrotizing Fasciitis: Types, Causes, Symptoms, Risk Factors, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention and Complications

Nov 09, 2023

Necrotizing Fasciitis Types, Causes, Symptoms, Risk Factors, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention and Complications

Necrotizing fasciitis is a rapidly spreading, fatal bacterial infection. "Necrotizing" is the term used to characterize an act that causes another entity to die. The subcutaneous fascia, which lies beneath the skin, maintains everything in place, including blood vessels and fat, while covering muscles and nerves. This tissue's inflammation is referred to as "fasciitis".

Necrotizing fasciitis is one kind of necrotizing soft tissue infection (NSTI). Another name for necrotizing fasciitis (or any NSTI) is the "flesh-eating disease." Two more NSTIs are necrotizing cellulitis and necrotizing myositis.

ENT Residency

Types of Necrotizing fasciitis

There are two types of necrotizing fasciitis: polymicrobial (also called Type I) and monomicrobial (sometimes called Type II).

A mix of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria causes a condition called polymicrobial necrotizing fasciitis. Monomicrobial necrotizing fasciitis is usually caused by Staphylococcus aureus or group A Streptococcus.

Also Read: Retrograde Ejaculation: Causes, Symptoms, Risk Factors, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention and Complications

Causes of Necrotizing Fasciitis

Although damage that does not break the skin can also result in necrotizing fasciitis, the most common cause is bacteria that enter your body through a skin injury.

Potential points of entrance for bacteria on the skin:

  • Scrapes, wounds, or burns.
  • Insects bite.
  • Puncture wounds from things such as needles.
  • Surgery
  • Although a wide range of bacteria, including those present in water, can cause necrotizing fasciitis, Group A strep bacterium is the most typical cause.

Also Read: Umbilical Hernia: Causes, Symptoms, Risk Factors, Diagnosis, Treatment and Complications

Symptoms of Necrotizing Fasciitis

Some early symptoms of this sickness, which resemble the flu, are as follows:

  • Body aches.
  • A high temperature.
  • Nausea
  • Cold
  • Leprosy
  • Severe discomfort at the site of injury

Necrotizing fasciitis advances rapidly. Other signs and symptoms include:

  • Skin that is flushed or discolored.
  • Edema in the affected regions.
  • Abnormal blood flow.
  • Blisters that have a reddish-yellow liquid.
  • Tissue death (necrosis).
  • Low pulse intensity.
  • Stroke.

Given how quickly necrotizing fasciitis spreads, you must see a doctor as soon as you experience any symptoms.

Also Read: Barrett's Esophagus: Causes, Symptoms, Risk Factors, Diagnosis, Treatment and Complications

Risk Factors of Necrotizing Fasciitis

In certain people, necrotizing fasciitis is more prevalent. This person possesses:

  • Wounds on their skin or mucous membranes, especially those that have developed following surgery.
  • Obesity
  • Diabetes.
  • Alcohol abuse disorders.
  • Problems with your immune or circulatory systems.
  • Cancer
  • Pregnancy.

Also Read: Arteriovenous Fistula : Causes, Symptoms, Risk Factors, Diagnosis, Treatment and Complications

How is Necrotizing Fasciitis Diagnosed?

If your doctor believes you have a flesh-eating disease, they may recommend the following diagnostic procedures:

  • Blood tests, such as a complete blood count.
  • Cultivation of deep tissue sample extractions.
  • Tissue specimen.
  • Computed tomography (CT) scan.

Your doctor will make a surgical diagnosis of necrotizing fasciitis. Not only will they evaluate your skin and tissues, but they will also perform surgery (called debriding) to remove dead tissue.

Also Read: Testicular Torsion: Causes, Symptoms, Risk Factors, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention and Complications

What is the Treatment For Necrotizing Fasciitis?

The treatment of necrotizing fasciitis requires quick action. You will require exploratory surgery to confirm the diagnosis of necrotizing fasciitis. Moreover, dead tissue needs to be surgically removed. It might take multiple steps to get rid of all the dead tissue and manage the infection. Usually, three steps are needed to guarantee the illness is completely eradicated. Furthermore, it is plausible that your physician may suggest intravenous (IV) fluids and antibiotics. You may need skin grafts or plastic surgery to help the wounds heal completely after surgery.

Prevention of Necrotizing Fasciitis

Currently, no vaccine can stop necrotizing fasciitis. To reduce the risk of getting bacterial skin infections, such as necrotizing fasciitis:

  • Avoid getting burned, scraped, sliced, and bitten by insects.
  • If you do have any form of wound, make sure to clean it with soap and water and cover it with a clean bandage until it gets better.
  • Consult your physician as soon as possible if you have any large or deep wounds or punctures.
  • To keep your hands clean, wash them with soap and water or use an alcohol-based antibacterial hand cleaner.
  • Steer clear of hot tubs, swimming pools, and other outdoor water features if you have a break in your skin.

You should consult your doctor if:

  • You see a fast-growing area of discoloration and swelling.
  • You're in a lot of pain.
  • You have a fever.

Also Read: Wound Healing, Tissue Repair & Scar

Complications of Necrotizing Fasciitis

Necrotizing fasciitis can have several extremely harmful side effects. They might include:

  • Injuries.
  • Loss of the arms, legs, fingers, and toes.
  • Shock 
  • Stroke.
  • Death.

Also Read: Cerebrovascular Disease (Meningocele, Arnold Chiari Malformation, Brain Herniation Syndrome)

Download the PrepLadder App and get the best neet pg online coaching with world-class video lectures, QBank, Mock Tests and more!

Download PrepLadder's best app for neet pg preparation for Android 

Download PrepLadder's best app for neet pg preparation for ios

Rapid Revision 5.0
Auther Details

PrepLadder Medical

Get access to all the essential resources required to ace your medical exam Preparation. Stay updated with the latest news and developments in the medical exam, improve your Medical Exam preparation, and turn your dreams into a reality!


Top searching words

The most popular search terms used by aspirants

  • NEET PG Surgery
  • Surgery NEET PG