Jun 23, 2023
Ankylosing spondylitis, also known as axial spondyloarthritis, is an inflammatory condition that can eventually lead to the fusion of some of the vertebrae in the spine. This fusion reduces the spine's flexibility and may cause a hunched posture. Breathing deeply may be challenging if the ribs are injured.
There are two forms of axial spondyloarthritis. Ankylosing spondylitis is detected on an X-ray. The disorder is known as non radiographic axial spondyloarthritis when it cannot be seen on an X-ray but is discovered based on symptoms, blood tests, and other imaging studies.
Read this blog further to get a quick overview of this important topic for orthopedics to ace your NEET PG exam preparation.
Although there is no established etiology for ankylosing spondylitis, genetic factors may play a role. In particular, the chance of developing ankylosing spondylitis is considerably enhanced among those who carry the HLA-B27 gene.
Early adulthood is usually when symptoms first appear. Other bodily parts, most frequently the eyes, might also experience inflammation.
Back discomfort and stiffness in the lower back and hips, particularly in the morning and after periods of inactivity, are possible early signs of ankylosing spondylitis. Fatigue and neck aches are also frequent. At sporadic periods over time, symptoms may get better, get worse, or stop altogether.
The regions most frequently impacted are:
Early adulthood or late youth is the typical onset time. Those with ankylosing spondylitis typically carry the HLA-B27 gene. However, many individuals with this gene never experience ankylosing spondylitis.
If such patients are involved in body contact sports, chances of irreversible injury or even the chances of fracture of the spine are higher.
Select the posterior superior iliac spine of the patient. Mark a point on the midline of the PSIS and draw a line 5 cm below the point and 10 cm above the point (Making the total length of marking 15 cm).
Ask the patient to bend forward and ask to try to touch the toes. In normal individuals, the total length of the marking may increase substantially to 21 or 22 cm as the spine is flexible, that is the distance between the markings can increase more than 5 cm. In AS patients, the total length of marking doesn't increase like normal. Spine length may increase to 18-19 cm. The distance between the markings is less than 4 cm.
The lateral bending decreases in patients with ankylosing spondylitis.
Ask the patient to bend laterally and touch the knee with the palms. In AS, the patient cannot be able to touch the knee, as a normal person. As the curvature of the spine is substantially reduced.
Due to Substantial thoracic kyphosis and Loss of lumbar lordosis, there is a Decrease in the Height of the Patient
It is due to an increase in the thoracic kyphosis and a decrease in the lumbar lordosis component. In late diagnosis (Due to myopathy or alternative traditional medicine or improper diagnosis), the following characteristics can be presented as a Bamboo spine or Dagger sign.
Ankylosing spondylitis cannot be diagnosed with certainty by any test. Your healthcare professional will do a physical examination after going through your symptoms and family history. One or more of the following tests may be requested by your doctor to aid in diagnosis:
Ankylosing spondylitis is a chronic illness. Although there is no cure, therapy can lessen joint deterioration, avoid long-term consequences, and relieve discomfort. Treatments comprise:
In cases of severe ankylosing spondylitis, the body attempts to mend by forming new bones. This new bone gradually fills the space between vertebrae, eventually joining entire vertebrae together. Those areas of the spine stiffen and lose their flexibility. Fusion can also stiffen the rib cage, limiting lung function and capacity.
There may be further issues, such as:
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