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Hip Dysplasia: Causes, Symptoms, Risk Factors, Diagnosis, Treatment and Complications

Oct 25, 2023

Hip Dysplasia: Causes, Symptoms, Risk Factors, Diagnosis, Treatment and Complications

Hip Dysplasia is the medical word for a hip socket that partially exposes the ball of the upper thighbone. This allows for either a full or partial dislocation of the hip joint. The majority of affected people have hip dysplasia, a congenital condition.

Early postpartum and routine well-baby visits are times when doctors will evaluate your child to check for signs of hip dysplasia. Early detection of hip dysplasia in infancy usually results in treatment with a soft brace.

In less severe cases, a person may not experience symptoms until early adulthood or adolescence. Both the cartilage lining the joint and the soft cartilage (labrum) surrounding the hip joint's socket can be damaged by hip dysplasia. it is known as Hip labral tears.

For older children and young adults, surgery may be necessary to reposition the bones to allow for smooth joint motion.

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Causes Of Hip Dysplasia

The hip joint is composed of soft cartilage at birth, which progressively turns into bone. Because they serve as molds for one another, the ball and socket must fit together perfectly. The socket will not completely form around the ball and will become too shallow if the ball is not inserted firmly into it.

The final month before delivery might see the womb fill up to such an extent that the hip joint's ball shifts out of place, creating a shallower socket. The following are some factors that could cause the womb's volume to decrease:

  • First pregnancy
  • Breech baby presentation
  • Large baby

Also Read: Infections: Causative Agents - Orthopedics

Symptoms Of Hip Dysplasia

Symptoms and indicators vary depending on the age of the patient. A child may appear to have longer legs than the other. After learning to walk, a child may develop a limp. Changing diapers may cause one hip to be less flexible than the other.

Osteoarthritis and hip labral tears are two excruciating consequences of hip dysplasia in adolescents and young adults. Groyne's pain from activities could come from this. There are times when your hips can feel unstable.

Also Read: Ankylosing Spondylitis: Symptoms, Findings, Diagnosis, Treatment, Risk Factors And Complications

Risk Factors Of Hip Dysplasia

Hip dysplasia is more common in girls and typically runs in families. Babies who are tightly swaddled with their hips and knees straight and those who are born in the breech position also have an increased risk of hip dysplasia.

Diagnosis Of Hip Dysplasia

Hip dysplasia is typically identified at a well-baby check by a doctor using various leg movements on the infant. This makes the hip joint's fit more consistent.

Hip dysplasia can be difficult to diagnose and, in mild cases, may not show symptoms until a young adult years of age. If hip dysplasia is suspected, your doctor might advise an X-ray or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

Also Read: Ewing’s Sarcoma: Causes, Symptoms, Risk Factors, Diagnosis, Treatment and Complications

Treatment Of Hip Dysplasia

The patient's age and the extent of their hip damage determine how they will be treated for hip dysplasia. Children are usually treated with a soft brace, such as a Pavlik harness. For several months, it firmly retains the joint's ball component in its socket. This facilitates the socket's capacity to adopt the shape of the ball.

The brace's effectiveness decreases for infants older than six months. Instead, the doctor could straighten the bones and apply a full-body cast to immobilize them for several months. Surgery may be necessary in some circumstances to make sure that the joint fits properly.

If the dysplasia is more severe, realignment of the hip socket may also be performed. During periacetabular osteotomies, the pelvis is cut free from the socket, and the socket is realigned to better fit the ball.

Hip replacement surgery may be an option for older patients with severe hip dysplasia who have over time acquired debilitating arthritis.

Also Read: Tuberculosis of Bone & Joints

Complications Of Hip Dysplasia

Hip dysplasia has the potential to damage the labrum, the soft cartilage encircling the hip joint's socket, later in life. We refer to this as a hip labral tear. Osteoarthritis can also occur in the joint more frequently in cases of hip dysplasia. Higher contact pressures across a smaller socket surface are the reason for this condition. The smooth cartilage on the bones facilitates their smooth movement against one another when the joint moves are gradually damaged by this condition.

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