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Castleman Disease Causes, Symptoms, Risk Factors, Diagnosis and Treatment

Nov 30, 2023

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Causes Of Castleman Disease

Symptoms Of Castleman Disease

Risk Factors Of Castleman Disease

Complications Of Castleman Disease

Diagnosis Of Castleman Disease

Treatment Of Castleman Disease

A single concentration on the disease of Castleman

Castleman's disease with multiple centricity

Castleman Disease Causes, Symptoms, Risk Factors, Diagnosis and Treatment

Castleman disease is a rare condition caused by an excess of cells in your body's lymph nodes. The most common variant of the illness affects a single lymph node, usually in the abdomen or chest. The medical term for this variation is unicentric Castleman disease.

MCD, also known as multicentric Castleman disease, affects several lymph nodes across the body. There are three groups:

  • Linked MCD with HHV-8: This kind is linked to HIV, the human immunodeficiency virus, and human herpes virus type 8, or HHV-8.
  • Idiopathic motor cognitive decline: This type's etiology is uncertain. Another name for this is HHV-8-negative MCD.
  • Linked POEMS and MCD: This sort is associated with another disease called POEMS syndrome. A rare blood disorder called POEMS syndrome causes nerve damage.

Your prognosis and treatment plan will be determined by the type of Castleman disease you have. Treatment for unicentric Castleman disease, which affects a single lymph node, usually involves surgery.


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Causes Of Castleman Disease

It is uncertain what causes Castleman's illness. However, infection with the human herpes virus 8, or HHV-8, is connected to multicentric Castleman sickness.

Research shows that HHV-8 is found in nearly all HIV-positive patients with Castleman disease and less than half of HIV-negative patients with the illness.

Also Read: Calciphylaxis: Causes, Symptoms, Risk Factors, Diagnosis, Treatment and Complications

Symptoms Of Castleman Disease

Many people with unicentric Castleman disease have no symptoms at all. The enlarged lymph node may be discovered during a physical examination or an imaging test for an unrelated condition.

Some cases of unicentric Castleman disease may present with signs and symptoms that are more common in cases of multicentric Castleman disease, including:

  • High temperature.
  • Unintended reduction in weight.
  • Tiredness.
  • Sweating at night.
  • An enlarged liver or spleen.
  • Swollen lymph nodes associated with multicentric Castleman disease are most commonly found in the neck, collarbone, underarm, and groin areas.

Also Read: Williams Syndrome: Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment and Prevention

Risk Factors Of Castleman Disease

The Castleman disease can strike anyone at any age. On the other hand, a person with unicentric Castleman illness typically ages about 35. The majority of those who suffer from multicentric forms are in their 50s and 60s. In addition, the multicentric form is significantly more common in men than in women.

HIV infection is linked to a higher risk of multicentric Castleman disease.

Complications Of Castleman Disease

Patients with unicentric Castleman disease usually make a full recovery when the affected lymph node is removed. Infections that may be deadly or organ failure are possible outcomes of multicentric Castleman disease. Those who additionally have HIV/AIDS usually experience the worst outcomes.

Also Read: Megaloblastic Anaemia: Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment

Diagnosis Of Castleman Disease

After doing a complete physical examination and reviewing your medical history, your doctor may recommend:

  • Urine and blood tests can assist in ruling out infections or further ailments. Anemia and anomalies in blood proteins, which can occasionally be signs of Castleman disease, can also be detected by these tests.
  • Imaging tests to look for lymph nodes, the liver, or the spleen that are enlarged. A CT scan can be used to scan your pelvis, belly, chest, and neck. Positron emission tomography, or PET scans, are a helpful diagnostic method for Castleman disease and a gauge of a treatment's effectiveness.
  • To distinguish lymphoma and other lymphatic tissue disorders from Castleman illness, a lymph node biopsy is performed. A tissue sample from an enlarged lymph node is extracted and examined in the laboratory.

Also Read: Trisomy 13 (Patau Syndrome): Causes, Symptoms, Types, Diagnosis, Treatment And Prevention

Treatment Of Castleman Disease

Your particular kind of Castleman illness will dictate the course of treatment.

A single concentration on the disease of Castleman

To treat unicentric Castleman disease, the affected lymph node may be surgically removed. If the lymph node is in your belly or chest, as is often the case, major surgery may be necessary.

If surgery is not an option, medicines may be used to shrink the lymph node. Radiation treatment is an additional effective means of killing the injured tissue.

Imaging studies and follow-up visits will be necessary to search for relapses.

Castleman's disease with multiple centricity

Treatment for multicentric Castleman disease usually consists of medications and other therapies targeted at decreasing cell growth. The treatment plan that you receive will be determined by the severity of your illness and whether you are infected with HIV, HHV-8, or both.

Treatment options for multicentric Castleman disease may include the following:

  • Immunotherapy: Drugs such as siltuximab (Sylvant) or rituximab (Rituxan) can stop a protein that is overproduced in people with multicentric Castleman disease from doing its job.
  • Chemotherapy: This type of drug has the capacity to inhibit the proliferation of lymphatic cells. Your doctor may suggest adding chemotherapy if you experience organ failure or if immunotherapy is ineffective in treating your condition.
  • Steroid use: One drug that can aid in reducing inflammation is prednisone.
  • Antiviral drugs: These drugs have the ability to prevent the effects of HIV, HHV-8, or both.

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