Endocrine signaling plays a critical role in regulating various physiological processes, such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, and stress responses. Understanding these processes is essential for diagnosing and treating endocrine disorders.
In this blog we’ll cover types of signaling in the body, hormone synthesis, variations in peptide synthesis.
Types of Signaling in the Body / Endocrine System
It is a system in which :-
Gland secretes the hormone which releases into and circulates through the bloodstream.
These hormones interact with the target cell having specific receptors to get a specific biological response
There are various types of endocrine signaling that are explained below: -
Paracrine signaling: It is a system in which :-
The hormone / ligand acts on the targeted cell without ever passing through the systemic circulation
ECL cell in the stomach releases histamine which acts on the parietal cell to cause secretion of HCL
Autocrine Signaling: It is a type of system in which :-
The hormone can act on the cell that itself secretes the hormone.
There is one additional type of signaling known as the Neurocrine signaling
It is a system in which the neurons release the ligands which exhibits an endocrine behaviour.
Types of hormones / hormone families
There are three types of hormones :-
Peptide or protein hormones
Derivatives of a single amino acid
Peptide / Protein Hormones
These are further classified into groups or families that can be studied through the following table.
Growth hormones family
Some other small families
Calcitonin family including :-
Calcitonin gene released peptide (CGRP)
Parathyroid hormone (PTH) family including :-
PTH - RP
Somatostatin family including :-
The Ligand which has both paracrine, endocrine & neurocrine signaling is somatostatin.
All of these hormones are synthesized from cholesterol
Synthesis of cholesterol requires enzymatic steps which can only be performed by the specialized tissues
For e.g. :
Glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids secreted by the adrenal cortex gland.
Testosterone secreted by testis.
Estrogen and progesterone secreted by ovaries.
One common characteristic of all steroid hormones is that they have a CPP ring (cyclo pento-perhydrophenanthrene ring).
Derivatives Of A Single Amino Acid
These are the hormones that are derived from Tyrosine (A single Amino Acid).
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