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Biomedical Waste Management: Types, Different Coloured Bins For BMW And Treatment Methods

Jul 24, 2023

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Effects Of Biomedical Waste Management

Steps of BMW management 

Biomedical Waste Management Guidelines

Logos Used for Segregation of Biomedical Waste

Treatment Methods For Biomedical Waste

Biomedical Waste Management: Types, Different Coloured Bins For BMW And Treatment Methods

Biomedical waste is any waste product containing organisms or potential pathogens. These wastes get produced during the diagnosis, treatment, and immunization of people and animals.

Waste generated in hospitals consists of 80% General waste and 20% biomedical waste which consists of 10% Infectious waste and 5% Chemical / Radioactive waste.It is possible to produce both solid and liquid biological waste. Examples of biomedical wastes include:

  • Needles, lancets, syringes, scalpels, and shattered glass are all examples of sharps waste.
  • Human tissues or recognizable body parts that have been amputated, trash, and animal tissues from veterinary hospitals,
  • Used gloves, dressings, bandages, and other medical supplies
  • Laboratory waste
  • Liquid waste produced in infected areas

Disposing of and treating biomedical wastes differently than regular garbage is necessary. The aim of waste management is:

  • Reduce
  • Recycle
  • Recover

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Effects Of Biomedical Waste Management

Hazardous biomedical waste exposure can result in illness or harm to human health. Due to inadequate handling of medical wastes, the three most widely disseminated viruses globally are hepatitis B, C, and HIV. They spread through wounds from contaminated needles and syringes.

The people most at risk from the negative impacts of biomedical waste include doctors, nurses, and sanitation workers. The different technologies that can be applied in treatment include:

  • Chemical Disinfection
  • Incineration
  • Wet Thermal Treatment
  • Radiation from microwaves
  • Land Disposal
  • Inertization

Also Read: Turner Syndrome: Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment and Complications

Steps of BMW management 

  • Waste segregation: At the point of generation
  • Pretreat: Lab liquid waste 
  • Transportation of waste from generation site: Central 
  • Storage area (CSA) 
  • From CSA: Common Biomedical Waste Treatment 
  • Facility (CBMWTF) - Waste should reach from the generation site to Common Biomedical Waste Treatment Facility within 48 hrs
  • Treatment and disposal of waste in 48 hrs

Also Read: Marfan Syndrome: Causes , Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment

Biomedical Waste Management Guidelines

Biomedical Waste Management Guidelines
CategoryType of wasteType of Bag / ContainerTreatment / Disposal options

A picture containing cup, indoor, vessel, orange
Description automatically generated
Yellow (Infectious non-plastic waste)    
Human anatomical wasteYellow colored non-chlorinated plastic bagsIncineration / Plasma pyrolysis / Deep burial
Animal anatomical waste  
Soiled waste Incineration / Plasma pyrolysis / Deep burial / Autoclaving or Hydroclaving+ Shredding / Mutilation
Expired / discarded medicines, Pharmaceutical waste, Cytotoxic drugsYellow colored containers/non-chlorinated plastic bags with Cytotoxic labelSent back to manufacturer/ CBMWTF for Incineration (Cytotoxic drugs at temperature >1200°c)
Chemical solid wasteYellow colored containers/nonchlorinated plastic bagsIncineration or Plasma pyrolysis or Encapsulation
Chemical liquid waste such  as discarded disinfectants, infected body fluids and secretions, liquid from housekeeping related activitiesTo be discharged into a separate collection system, which leads to an effluent treatment system Not to be discarded into yellow bagPre-treated before mixing with other wastewater
Discarded linen waste contaminated with blood/body fluids, mask, cap, gown and shoe coverNon–chlorinated yellow  plastic bags / suitable packing materialNon–chlorinated chemical Disinfection followed by Incineration / Plasma pyrolysis
Microbiology, other clinical    laboratory waste, blood bags, live / attenuated vaccinesAutoclave safe plastic bag / containerPre-treat to sterilize with non–chlorinated chemicals / on- site as per NACO / WHO guidelines + Incineration

A picture containing text, container, bin, red
Description automatically generated
Red (Infectious plastic waste)
Disposable items such as
Intravenous tubes and sets
Urine bags
Syringes (without needles and fixed needle syringes)
Vacutainer with their needles cut
Plastic apron
Red colored non- chlorinated plastic bags  or containers1. Autoclaving / Microwaving / Hydrovlacing+ Shredding
2. Mutilation / Sterilization + Shredding
3. Treated waste sent to authorized recyclers or for energy recovery
White (Translucent) (Waste sharps including metal sharps)

A picture containing white
Description automatically generated
Syringes with fixed needles
Needles from the needle tip
Cutter or burner
Any other contaminated sharp (used or discarded)
Puncture-proof, leak-proof,tamper-proof containersAutoclaving / dry heat sterilization followed by
1. Shredding or Mutilation or Encapsulation in a metal container or cement concrete or
2. Sanitary landfill or
3. Designated concrete waste sharp pit
Blue (Glasswares & metallic body implant) A picture containing bin, outdoor, container
Description automatically generated

Discarded & contaminated glass including medicine vials & ampoules except those contaminated with cytotoxic waste
Metallic body implants
Blue colored containers

Also Read: Yellow Fever: Mode of Transmission, Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment And Prevention

Logos Used for Segregation of Biomedical Waste

Logos used for segregation of biomedical waste

Treatment Methods For Biomedical Waste

  • Incineration

It is a dry heat sterilization method. In this High temperature of  800 - 1200° C is used. This method helps to convert the Organic waste into non-organic waste. Waste volume is decreased it is Not suitable for reactive chemicals or mercury spills.

  • Autoclave

 It is a Moist heat sterilization method. It is Used for Infectious plastic waste & sharp waste. In this, we used the temperature of  121 DEGREE  for 15 MINS for sterilization of the waste.

  • Chemical disinfection

In this  1-2% Sodium hypochlorite is used for waste management.

  • Microwaving

Radiofrequency waves of 2450 MHz are used to Produce friction of water molecules which leads to the Generation of heat

  • Hydroclaving

 It is a Low-temperature steam method. In this method, Waste is broken into small pieces and it is done to avoid Shredding

  • Shredding 

In this method the Waste is cut into small pieces which helps in decreasing waste volume

  • Deep Burial 

When CBWTF is not available within 75km then a Pit is dug at 2 meters depth for disposing off the waste.

  • Sharp Pits

These are Constructed within the Hospital and are used for waste management. 

  • Encapsulation 

 Immobilizing the material & sealing up the container

  • Inertization

In this method there is a Mixing of waste with cement before disposal

  • Plasma Pyrolysis 

Also Read: All about National Immunization & Schedule Delayed Immunization

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