Jul 24, 2023
Biomedical waste is any waste product containing organisms or potential pathogens. These wastes get produced during the diagnosis, treatment, and immunization of people and animals.
Waste generated in hospitals consists of 80% General waste and 20% biomedical waste which consists of 10% Infectious waste and 5% Chemical / Radioactive waste.It is possible to produce both solid and liquid biological waste. Examples of biomedical wastes include:
Disposing of and treating biomedical wastes differently than regular garbage is necessary. The aim of waste management is:
Hazardous biomedical waste exposure can result in illness or harm to human health. Due to inadequate handling of medical wastes, the three most widely disseminated viruses globally are hepatitis B, C, and HIV. They spread through wounds from contaminated needles and syringes.
The people most at risk from the negative impacts of biomedical waste include doctors, nurses, and sanitation workers. The different technologies that can be applied in treatment include:
|Category||Type of waste||Type of Bag / Container||Treatment / Disposal options|
Yellow (Infectious non-plastic waste)
|Human anatomical waste||Yellow colored non-chlorinated plastic bags||Incineration / Plasma pyrolysis / Deep burial|
|Animal anatomical waste|
|Soiled waste||Incineration / Plasma pyrolysis / Deep burial / Autoclaving or Hydroclaving+ Shredding / Mutilation|
|Expired / discarded medicines, Pharmaceutical waste, Cytotoxic drugs||Yellow colored containers/non-chlorinated plastic bags with Cytotoxic label||Sent back to manufacturer/ CBMWTF for Incineration (Cytotoxic drugs at temperature >1200°c)|
|Chemical solid waste||Yellow colored containers/nonchlorinated plastic bags||Incineration or Plasma pyrolysis or Encapsulation|
|Chemical liquid waste such as discarded disinfectants, infected body ﬂuids and secretions, liquid from housekeeping related activities||To be discharged into a separate collection system, which leads to an efﬂuent treatment system Not to be discarded into yellow bag||Pre-treated before mixing with other wastewater|
|Discarded linen waste contaminated with blood/body ﬂuids, mask, cap, gown and shoe cover||Non–chlorinated yellow plastic bags / suitable packing material||Non–chlorinated chemical Disinfection followed by Incineration / Plasma pyrolysis|
|Microbiology, other clinical laboratory waste, blood bags, live / attenuated vaccines||Autoclave safe plastic bag / container||Pre-treat to sterilize with non–chlorinated chemicals / on- site as per NACO / WHO guidelines + Incineration|
Red (Infectious plastic waste)
|Disposable items such as|
Intravenous tubes and sets
Syringes (without needles and ﬁxed needle syringes)
Vacutainer with their needles cut
|Red colored non- chlorinated plastic bags or containers||1. Autoclaving / Microwaving / Hydrovlacing+ Shredding|
2. Mutilation / Sterilization + Shredding
3. Treated waste sent to authorized recyclers or for energy recovery
|White (Translucent) (Waste sharps including metal sharps)||Needles|
Syringes with ﬁxed needles
Needles from the needle tip
Cutter or burner
Any other contaminated sharp (used or discarded)
|Puncture-proof, leak-proof,tamper-proof containers||Autoclaving / dry heat sterilization followed by|
1. Shredding or Mutilation or Encapsulation in a metal container or cement concrete or
2. Sanitary landﬁll or
3. Designated concrete waste sharp pit
|Blue (Glasswares & metallic body implant) ||Broken|
Discarded & contaminated glass including medicine vials & ampoules except those contaminated with cytotoxic waste
Metallic body implants
|Blue colored containers|
It is a dry heat sterilization method. In this High temperature of 800 - 1200° C is used. This method helps to convert the Organic waste into non-organic waste. Waste volume is decreased it is Not suitable for reactive chemicals or mercury spills.
It is a Moist heat sterilization method. It is Used for Infectious plastic waste & sharp waste. In this, we used the temperature of 121 DEGREE for 15 MINS for sterilization of the waste.
In this 1-2% Sodium hypochlorite is used for waste management.
Radiofrequency waves of 2450 MHz are used to Produce friction of water molecules which leads to the Generation of heat
It is a Low-temperature steam method. In this method, Waste is broken into small pieces and it is done to avoid Shredding
In this method the Waste is cut into small pieces which helps in decreasing waste volume
When CBWTF is not available within 75km then a Pit is dug at 2 meters depth for disposing off the waste.
These are Constructed within the Hospital and are used for waste management.
Immobilizing the material & sealing up the container
In this method there is a Mixing of waste with cement before disposal
Download the PrepLadder App and get the best neet pg online coaching with world-class video lectures, QBank, Mock Tests and more!
Download PrepLadder's best app for neet pg preparation for Android
Download PrepLadder's best app for neet pg preparation for ios
Get access to all the essential resources required to ace your medical exam Preparation. Stay updated with the latest news and developments in the medical exam, improve your Medical Exam preparation, and turn your dreams into a reality!
The most popular search terms used by aspirants