Jun 20, 2023
A certain species of mosquito can bite a person and transmit the virus that causes yellow fever. The tropics and subtropics of Africa and South America are home to these mosquitoes and yellow fever. When mosquitoes bite primates carrying the virus get infected.
The symptoms of the yellow fever virus might vary. Some individuals could be symptom-free. When it's at its worst, it can be fatal but only exhibit minor flu-like symptoms. You can experience symptoms similar to the flu, including aches, pains, and fever, or you might start bleeding and get liver damage. About three to six days pass before symptoms appear.
Read this blog further to get a quick overview of this important topic for PREVENTIVE AND SOCIAL MEDICINE and ace your NEET PG exam preparation.
The mode of transmission of yellow fever is via 3 cycles:
Yellow fever is caused by a flavivirus. It is spread through the bite of an Aedes aegypti mosquito. The mosquito spreads the disease after biting an infected person or monkey. For the rest of its life, an infected mosquito will continue to spread infection. It has a Hunchback appearance with white stripes on the black body.
Yellowish discoloration of the skin and fever are two of yellow fever's most obvious symptoms. Hepatitis, the illness that causes the yellowing, damages the liver. Initial yellow fever symptoms might occur anywhere between three and six days after a mosquito bite whereas some people experience no symptoms at all.
Yellow fever infections often have three stages. Most people experience the first phase of symptoms for three to four days and then these symptoms. The initial stage is typically non-specific and difficult to separate from other viral infections.
Yellow fever's earliest signs and symptoms include:
Unfortunately, 15% to 25% of patients experience a third, more dangerous phase of illness. Viral hemorrhagic fever, which has internal bleeding (hemorrhaging), a high fever, and harm to the liver, kidneys, and circulatory system, may ultimately manifest. According to estimates from the World Health Organisation, half of all individuals who experience this severe stage of infection survive.
The following are examples of yellow fever third-phase symptoms:
You should consult a doctor right once if you get any symptoms after visiting a region where yellow fever is prevalent. Your doctor will order tests to see if the virus is in your blood in addition to interviewing you about your symptoms and the areas you've been.
Yellow fever cannot be treated with antiviral drugs instead, supportive care is provided in a hospital. This includes giving fluids and oxygen, monitoring blood pressure, replenishing lost blood, starting kidney dialysis if there is kidney failure, and treating any secondary infections.
To replenish the proteins that help in clotting in some individuals, plasma transfusions may be administered. Mosquitoes should not be near the sufferer. The patient will get the illness through a mosquito bite and then spread it to others.
Due to the possibility of bleeding, they should avoid using aspirin and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medicines (NSAIDs).
17D vaccine- strain is used. It is stored at a temperature of +5 to -30⁰C. Yellow fever vaccine cannot be stored under cold chain temperatures in India.
The type of vaccine is the Reconstituted vaccine. It should be kept on ice away from light. The cold physiological saline diluent is added to the vaccine. It does not follow an open vial policy and It should be used within half an hour.
These vaccines are given via the Subcutaneous route with a Dose of 0.5ml at the insertion of the deltoid. Immunity starts after 7-10 days and lasts lifelong. Never give the yellow fever vaccine and cholera vaccine together. There has to be a gap of 3 weeks.
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Vector control is done via the Aedes aegypti index (AAI) which is calculated as the Number of Aedes mosquitoes found within 400 mts of an area. It is also known as the house index which includes the number of houses showing the breeding of Aedes aegypti. The seaports and airports must be kept free from breeding Aedes aegypti up to 400 meters. The AAI is kept as <1(0r zero) for all international connection airports and seaports.
Quarantine: A traveler without a valid international certificate of vaccination is placed in quarantine in a mosquito-proof ward for 6 days.
If you plan to go to any areas where yellow fever is known to exist, obtain the vaccine around three to four weeks before your departure. A single dose usually offers lifetime protection. Other advice is:
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