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Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment

May 26, 2023

carpal tunnel syndrome

The carpal tunnel syndrome is caused due to pressure on the median nerve. On the hand's palm side, a small opening called the carpal tunnel is encircled by bones and ligaments. Numbness, tingling, and weakness in the hand and arm are possible signs that the median nerve is compressed. Carpal tunnel syndrome can have its roots in the anatomy of the wrist, health issues, and perhaps repeated hand motions. The tingling and numbness are typically reduced with appropriate care, and the function of the wrist and hand is also recovered.

carpal tunnel syndrome

Read this blog further to get a quick overview of this important topic for anatomy and ace your NEET PG exam preparation.

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Causes of carpal tunnel syndrome

Through the carpal tunnel in the wrist, the median nerve runs from the forearm to the hand. It provides sensation to the thumb and other fingers on the palm side, with the exception of the little finger. By delivering nerve signals to the muscles surrounding the thumb's base, it also functions as a motor function.

Any reason that compresses or irritates the median nerve in the carpal tunnel region might cause carpal tunnel syndrome. A fractured wrist and rheumatoid arthritis-related edema and inflammation can narrow the carpal tunnel and irritate the nerve.

Symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome

  • Numbness
  • Tingling sensations
  • Decreased sensation in the tips of the fingers
  • Difficulty carrying a book or driving a car
  • Difficulty in buttoning the shirt 

Diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome:

PHALEN'S TEST carpal tunnel syndrome

It helps to test the compression of the median nerve. On compression of the median nerve, more tingling occurs


On hitting the  regenerating nerve (median nerve), if  tingling sensation increases then it is a positive tinel’s sign.

HAND DEFORMITY carpal tunnel syndrome

Due to prolonged carpal tunnel syndrome (median nerve injury) there is Thenar atrophy. But the thumb is in adduction deformity due to overactive adductor pollicis which is  supplied by the ulnar nerve.

carpal tunnel syndrome pen test

The patient is asked to put one hand flat on the table with the palm surface facing upwards, and the patient is asked to touch the pen of the examiner by abducting his thumb. If the patient is not able to abduct his thumb, this means there is median nerve damage.


  • Placing a hand splint. Your wrist is kept from moving thanks to this. Additionally, it relieves the tunnel's nerves of some of their compression.
  • Medicine that fights inflammation. These can be taken orally or injected directly into the carpal tunnel. These help to minimize edema.
  • Surgery. This relieves pressure on the carpal tunnel's nerves.
  • Site modifications. Making additional ergonomic improvements or moving your computer keyboard can also relieve problems.
  • Exercise. When symptoms have improved, stretching and strengthening exercises might be useful. A physical or occupational therapist can be in charge of supervising these workouts.

Prevention of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome:

It can be challenging to avoid carpal tunnel syndrome. Prevention can be difficult because there are so many various actions in a person's daily life that can contribute to the illness. Workplace adjustments, including adequate seating and wrist and hand placement, can help reduce some risk factors for carpal tunnel syndrome. Additional preventive measures include:

  • Keeping your wrists straight when you sleep.
  • When handling tools, keep your wrists straight.
  • Reducing the use of flexed wrists in repetitive or forceful grabbing.
  • Taking regular relaxation breaks from routine tasks.
  • Exercising before and after events, including stretching and conditioning.
  • Keeping an eye on and effectively treating medical issues related to carpal tunnel syndrome.

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