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Modes of Ventilation: Types and Uses

Jun 21, 2023

Modes of Ventilation

Ventilation is the air movement between the environment and the lungs via inhalation and exhalation. Mechanical ventilation using artificial methods to assist breathing 

  1. CMV (Controlled Mode Ventilation) also known as IPPV (intermitted positive pressure ventilation)
  2. SIMV (Synchronized Intermittent Ventilation)
  3. PCV- Pressure Control Ventilation
  4. PS- Pressure Support
  5. CPAP- Continuous Positive Airway Pressure 

Modes of ventilation is one of the most important aspects of using mechanical ventilation. The mode refers to the method of inspiratory support. Mechanical ventilation machines are available with invasive and non-invasive modes.

Read this blog further to get a quick overview of this important topic for DERMATOLOGY and gynaecology and ace your NEET PG exam preparation.

Types of Modes of Ventilation

Mode of ventilationControlled mode ventilation (CMV)Synchronized intermittent mode ventilation(SIMV)Pressure control ventilation

Ps-pressure support
Continuous positive airway pressure(CPAP)
Physical characterThe patient's weight is 50kgRR 14/minPressure is being controlledSpontaneous breathingPEEP +CPAP
Tidal volumeTidal Volume 7-8 ml/kgTidal Volume 400ml/kgNot a weaning modeWorks on two mechanismsIt enables the alveoli to be open
Patient effortsNo efforts from the patient's sideLess V/Q mismatchLess protective ventilationCPAPTo improve the oxygenation
UsageHeavily sedatedNo/slight sedationPediatricBIPAPDecrease in bp and urine output

CMV (Controlled Mode Ventilation)

Control ventilation is a mode of ventilation in which the respirator delivers the preset volume or pressure regardless of the patient's inspiratory efforts. It is indicated in patients with severe neurological alterations, deep sedation, shock, or respiratory failure.

FeatureTo avoid any kind of synchrony
The patient weighs 50kg.V/Q is mismatched.
Tidal volume is 7-8 ml/kg.There is more hemodynamic imbalance.
There is no effort from the patient's side.It is not a weaning mode.
The patient is heavily sedated/paralyzed.It is used for a patient under general anesthesia.

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SIMV (Synchronized Intermittent Mode of Ventilation)

Synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation is a ventilator mode that enables partial mechanical assistance. This ventilator mode will provide a set number of breaths at a fixed tidal volume, but a patient can trigger a spontaneous breath with the volume determined by patient effort.

SIMV (Synchronized Intermittent Mode of Ventilation)

Graph description:

The patient's tidal volume is 400 ml, as shown in the 1st slope of the graph. 2nd slope of the graph represents If the patient breathes only 250 ml, the ventilator will provide an additional 150 ml to make it 400 ml of tidal volume.

FeatureAvoid any synchrony
The tidal volume of the patient is 400ml/kgThere is less V/Q mismatch.There is less hemodynamic imbalance.
The respiratory rate of the patient is 14/minNo/slight sedation is required.
The Patient and the ventilator are working in synchrony.It is a weaning mode.

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Pressure Control Ventilation (PCV)

Pressure-controlled ventilation is utilized in patients with an indwelling endotracheal tube or tracheostomy tube that affords the practitioner the ability to ventilate a patient with a maximal peak pressure.

FeaturesUsed in
The Pressure is being controlled.ARDS.
The Upper limit of intra-alveolar pressure is fixed.Pediatric.
It is not a weaning mode.
It is a Lung protective ventilation.

PS Ventilation

Pressure support ventilation (PSV) is a spontaneous mode of ventilation in which each breath is initiated by the patient but is supported by constant pressure inflation. The person is spontaneously breathing. It works on two mechanisms. CPAP-continuous positive airway pressure. PEEP- positive end-expiratory pressure = Enables the alveoli to open.

PEEP (Positive End-Expiratory Pressure)

It enables the alveoli to be open at the end-expiration. It helps To improve the oxygenation of the patient. An increase in intrathoracic pressure leads to a decrease in venous pressure and a decrease in CO2 . BP is a decrease in the perfusion of a vital organ. A decrease in urine output.

CPAP(Continous Positive Airway Pressure)

CPAP is frequently used to evaluate a patient's chances of being extubated if they only need little ventilation support. It maintains the circuit pressure that the operator specifies throughout ventilation. PS is frequently combined with CPAP.

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