Ultimate NEET-PG Exam Study Material

Proven Effective Content with 96% Strike Rate

Teratoma: Causes, Symptoms, Types, Diagnosis And Treatment.

Aug 25, 2023

Navigate Quickly

Types Of Teratoma

Cause Of Teratoma

Symptoms Of Teratoma

Teratoma of the sacrococcyx (tailbone).

Ovarian teratoma

Teratoma of the testes

Diagnosis Of Teratoma

Treatment Of Teratoma

Sacrococcygeal teratoma

Teratoma of the ovary

Teratoma of the Testes

Teratoma: Causes, Symptoms, Types, Diagnosis And Treatment.

A teratoma is a rare variety of germ cell tumour that can contain immature or completely formed tissue, such as teeth, hair, bone, and muscle. Teratomas can occur in persons of any age and can be either malignant or non-cancerous.

 Surgery is also used as a treatment option for teratomas. Chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or other cancer treatments can be necessary for cancerous teratomas.


PrepLadder 6.0

Types Of Teratoma

The two basic teratoma classifications are mature and immature.

  • Mature- These teratomas are typically not malignant. However, after being surgically removed, adult teratomas are more likely to recur.
  • Immature- A teratoma of this stage is more prone to develop into cancer. The somatic (not germ cell) malignancies sarcoma, carcinoma, or leukaemia may have components in immature teratomas.

Also Read: Heartburn: Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment and Complications

Cause Of Teratoma

Teratomas develop when problems occur during the differentiation of your cells. They specifically grow in the undifferentiated germ cells in your body. This implies that they can differentiate into any sort of cell, including hair, egg, and sperm.

As a baby grows, its germ cells begin to spread throughout the body, where they differentiate into differentiated cells like eggs in the ovaries and sperm in the testicles. Because of this, teratomas typically develop in the ovaries or testicles and include the following:

  • Hair
  • Teeth
  • Wax
  • Oil
  • Skin
  • Sacrococcygeal Teratoma

Also read: Orchitis: Causes, Symptoms, Risk Factors, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention and Complications


INI CET Champions Exam

Symptoms Of Teratoma

Teratoma patients initially might not exhibit any symptoms. Once present, symptoms can differ greatly depending on the location of the tumour. Common signs of teratomas include:

  • Pain.
  • Bleeding.
  • Swelling.
  • Levels of the hormone BhCG (beta-human chorionic gonadotropin) were slightly increased.
  • AFP (alpha-fetoprotein), a tumour marker, is slightly raised.

Specific symptoms are frequently seen in particular teratoma types:

Teratoma of the sacrococcyx (tailbone).

In the region of the tailbone, sacrococcygeal teratomas can develop either inside or outside the body. Potential signs include:

  • A tailbone-area lump that can be seen.
  • Ache in the abdomen.
  • Constipation.
  • The discomfort of urinating.
  • Pubic swell.
  • Leg sluggishness.

Ovarian teratoma

Intense pelvic or abdominal discomfort is one of the main signs of ovarian teratoma. This happens when the ovary experiences too much pressure from the expanding bulk.

Ovarian teratomas occasionally come with NMDA encephalitis, an uncommon illness that can cause severe headaches, disorientation, and psychosis.

Teratoma of the testes

A bulge or swelling in the testicle is the main sign of testicular teratoma. Patients with testicular teratomas occasionally may not show any symptoms

Diagnosis Of Teratoma

Your healthcare professional will do a physical examination and quiz you about your symptoms and medical history if they believe you may have a teratoma. They could also request testing like:

  • To find the size and location of the teratoma, imaging procedures like X-rays, CT (computed tomography) scans, MRI, and ultrasound are used.
  • Blood tests to examine tumour markers and hormone levels.
  • A biopsy will be performed to determine the teratoma's prognosis.
  • With the advancement of imaging technology, medical professionals can occasionally identify teratomas when they are still in the foetal stage of development.

Also Read : Regional Injury, Types of Fractures

Treatment Of Teratoma

Sacrococcygeal teratoma

Your doctor will keep a close eye on your pregnancy if a teratoma is found during the foetal period.

A typical vaginal delivery will be scheduled if the teratoma is still tiny. Your doctor would most likely prepare for an early caesarean delivery if the tumour is significant or there is an excess of amniotic fluid.

Rarely, foetal surgery is required to remove the SCT before it can lead to potentially fatal consequences.

Surgery is used to remove SCTs that are found at birth or later. Since there is a good potential of regrowth within three years, they need to be regularly watched.

Chemotherapy is administered in addition to surgery if the teratoma is cancerous. With contemporary chemotherapy, survival statistics are very good.

Teratoma of the ovary

Laparoscopic surgery is typically used to remove mature ovarian teratomas (dermoid cysts), provided the cyst is small. In order to introduce a scope and a tiny cutting tool, a small incision must be made in the abdomen.

The cyst could become perforated and release waxy material as a modest danger during laparoscopic removal. A reaction known as chemical peritonitis may arise from this.

The ovary may need to be removed entirely in some circumstances. The other ovary will continue producing eggs and causing menstruation.

Dermoid cysts in both ovaries are discovered in 25% of patients. Your chance of becoming infertile rises as a result.

Girls up to their early 20s are typically affected with immature ovarian teratomas. Even if these teratomas are discovered at an advanced stage, surgery and chemotherapy can usually cure the condition.

Teratoma of the Testes

When this teratoma is malignant, surgical excision of the testis is typically the first course of treatment.

Testicular teratoma is not particularly responsive to chemotherapy. Teratoma and other malignant tissue can occasionally coexist, necessitating chemotherapy.

Your fertility, sperm count, and sexual health will all be impacted by the removal of a testicle. There are frequently multiple treatments available, so talk to your doctor about your options.

Also Read: Xerostomia (Dry Mouth): Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment and Complications

Download the PrepLadder App and get the best neet pg online coaching with world-class video lectures, QBank, Mock Tests and more!

Download PrepLadder's best app for neet pg preparation for Android 

Download PrepLadder's best app for neet pg preparation for ios


Rapid Revision 5.0

Auther Details

PrepLadder Medical

Get access to all the essential resources required to ace your medical exam Preparation. Stay updated with the latest news and developments in the medical exam, improve your Medical Exam preparation, and turn your dreams into a reality!

Top searching words

The most popular search terms used by aspirants

  • NEET PG Medicine
  • Medical PG Medicine