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Trichomoniasis: Symptoms, Causes, Risk Factors, Complications, Diagnosis, Treatment and Prevention

Jun 30, 2023

Trichomoniasis: Symptoms, Causes, Risk Factors, Complications, Diagnosis, Treatment And Prevention : OBGYN

The tiny parasite Trichomonas vaginalis, which has only one cell, is what causes trichomoniasis. The parasite transmits among people by genital contact, such as vaginal, oral, or anal sex. The virus can be acquired by both men and women.

The parasite causes an infection of the lower genital tract. The vulva, the vagina, the cervix, the urethra, and the external female genitalia are all included in this. In males, the parasite infects the urethra (the interior of the penis).

It is uncertain how long the incubation period will last between exposure to the parasite and infection. But the predicted time frame is between 4 and 28 days. Even if you don't have any symptoms, you or your partner can still transmit the virus.

Read this blog further to get a quick overview of this important topic Trichomoniasis and its Symptoms, Causes, Risk Factors, Complications, Diagnosis, Treatment And Prevention for OBSTETRICS AND GYNECOLOGY to ace your NEET PG exam preparation.

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Symptoms of Trichomoniasis

Trichomoniasis typically has no symptoms or indicators in its victims. However, signs could gradually appear. Men and women acquire indications and symptoms at various times.

Trichomonas indications and symptoms in females include:

  • A significant amount of a thin, frequently unpleasant-smelling vaginal discharge that may be clear, white, grey, yellow, or green.
  • Itching, burning, and redness in the genitalia
  • Pain during sex or urination
  • A lower abdominal area pain

Trichomonas rarely manifests symptoms in men. However, when males do exhibit signs and symptoms, they may include:

  • Itchiness or irritation in the penis 
  • Micturation (Burning sensation  during or after urinating)
  • Discharge from penis

Risk Factors of Trichomoniasis

The following conditions increase your risk of contracting trichomoniasis:

  • Having several sexual partners
  • History of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in the past
  • Sex without using a condom

Complications of Trichomoniasis

Trichomoniasis-infected pregnant women can suffer from::

  • Premature delivery.
  • conceive a child that is underweight at birth
  • Risk of passing the infection to the infant being born to this infected mother 
  • Trichomoniasis can irritate the vaginal area, which can make it simpler for other STIs to enter the body or spread to others. Additionally, it looks like trichomoniasis makes it simpler to contract HIV, the virus that causes AIDS and the associated symptoms.
  • The risk of prostate or cervical cancer is elevated in people with trichomoniasis.

Also Read :

Endometrial Carcinoma (Endometrial Hyperplasia's, Staging Of Ca Endometrium)Molar Pregnancy and Gestational Trophoblastic Disease - NEET PG OBGYNSpontaneous and Induced Abortions - NEET PG OBGYN
Endometriosis and Adenomyosis - NEET PG OBGYNPostpartum Hemorrhage: Causes, Types and ManagementDrugs in Pregnancy - NEET PG Obstetrics

Diagnosis of Trichomoniasis

An examination of the genitalia and laboratory testing may be used by your doctor to determine whether you have trichomoniasis.

Additionally, the doctor might use a microscope to examine a sample of vaginal fluid in the case of women or a swab from the penis (urethra) in the case of males. No more tests are required if the parasite can be seen under a microscope.

If the test doesn't reveal the parasite but the doctor suspects you may have trichomoniasis, other tests may be performed.

 A penis urethral swab, a vaginal fluid sample, or occasionally urine may be requested by a healthcare professional. A fast antigen test and a test for amplification of nucleic acids are among the tests.

Your healthcare practitioner might conduct tests for additional STIs if you have trichomoniasis.

Also Read : Urethritis: Causes, Symptoms, Types, Diagnosis, Treatment, Complications and Prevention

Treatment of Trichomoniasis

It is necessary to use an oral antibiotic for trichomoniasis treatment that works well against parasite-related infections. Even while pregnant, treatment is possible. Potential choices include:

  • Megadose: Your physician may advise a single, massive dose (megadose) of metronidazole (Flagyl), tinidazole (Tindamax), or secnidazole (Solosec). These oral drugs are only to be consumed once.
  • Different dosages: Many smaller doses of metronidazole or tinidazole may be suggested by healthcare providers. Over the course of seven days, you take the pills twice daily. Even if you start to feel better after a few days, continue taking this medication for the entire amount of time your provider suggested to help with the infection's complete clearing. 

Treatment is required for each sex partner simultaneously. This stops the virus from spreading (reinfection). And until the treatment is finished and the symptoms have subsided, you must refrain from having sexual relations. 

Severe nausea and vomiting can result from drinking alcohol during therapy and for a few days after. After using metronidazole, secnidazole, or tinidazole, refrain from drinking alcohol for 24 hours, 48 hours, or 72 hours, respectively.

Following therapy, your doctor will normally do another trichomoniasis test on you. A follow-up test two to three months following therapy can verify that the virus has been eradicated. Even after receiving treatment to cure trichomoniasis, you still run the risk of contracting it again if you come into contact with an infected person.

Also Read: Vaginal Yeast Infections: Causes, Symptoms, Risk Factors, Diagnosis, Treatment and Complications

Prevention of Trichomoniasis

By staying away from vaginal sex, you can completely avoid trich. Additional measures you can take to lessen your risk include:

  • Always use condoms made of latex. Put the condom on early, before it touches the vagina because trich can be contracted or spread just through contact.
  • Avoid Douching. To keep you healthy, the bacteria in your vagina are naturally balanced. Your risk of contracting an STD is increased when you douche because you eliminate part of the beneficial bacteria.
  • Be sure to only have sex with one partner who has tested STD-free. If it doesn't help, you might want to consider reducing the number of sex partners you have.
  • Discuss your sexual preferences and the chance of contracting an infection with your partners openly. 

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