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Myopia: Causes, Symptoms, Risk Factors, Diagnosis, Treatment and Complications

Aug 17, 2023

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Cause Of Myopia

Symptoms Of  Myopia

Refractive error

Risk Factors Of Myopia

Diagnosis Of Myopia

Inner-eye examination

Treatment Of Myopia

Complications Of Myopia


Myopia also known as nearsightedness is a common vision disorder that causes near objects to appear distinct while far objects to appear blurry. It takes place when the shape of the eye or certain parts of the eye cause light rays to bend (refract) improperly. Light rays that should be focused on the retina, the layer of nerve tissue at the rear of the eye, are instead concentrated in front of the retina.

Nearsightedness normally stabilizes between the ages of 20 and 40 after developing typically during childhood and adolescence. Myopia frequently runs in families.

Nearsightedness can be verified with a simple eye checkup. With eyeglasses, contact lenses, or refractive surgery, you can correct your hazy vision.

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Cause Of Myopia

Nearsightedness is frequently caused by long or oval eyes as opposed to round ones. It might also happen as a result of an excessively steep corneal curvature. Light rays arrive at a place in front of the retina and cross due to these modifications. The brain interprets the retina's information as being hazy.

Additionally, refractive errors can be:

  • Hyperopia (farsightedness). This happens when your cornea is too flat or when your eyeball is shorter than average. Some people might see distant objects as being reasonably distinct while seeing nearby objects as being hazy. Some persons who have farsightedness experience blurriness of objects at all distances.
  • Astigmatism. This happens when the cornea or lens of your eye is more steeply bent in one direction than the other.
  • Nearsightedness is frequently caused by long or oval eyes as opposed to round ones.

Symptoms Of  Myopia

The following are some nearsightedness warning signs or symptoms:

  • Blurry vision when viewing distant objects
  • A lack of clear vision without squinting or partially closing one's eyes
  • Headaches
  • Eyestrain
  • Whiteboard and screenwriting and images displayed in class may be difficult for kids to see. Younger children may not have any signs of vision impairment, yet they may engage in the following behaviors:
  • Continue to squint
  • seem oblivious to far-off items
  • Blink frequently
  • The eyes are often rubbed
  • Seated near the television

Adults with myopia may have difficulty reading store or traffic signage. Some people may have blurry vision in low light, such as when driving at night, even though they can see clearly in the daylight. This disease is known as nocturnal myopia.

The two areas of your eye where images are focused are as follows:

The translucent, dome-shaped front surface of your eye is called the cornea.

The lens is a transparent object that resembles an M&M candy bar in both size and shape.

For you to see, light must pass through your cornea and lens. The retina, the nerve tissues in the back of your eye, is directly illuminated by the light that is refracted by them. 

These tissues convert light into signals that are transmitted to the brain, allowing you to see images.

Refractive error

A refractive error is a nearsightedness. This issue arises when the cornea's condition or form, or even the structure of the eye itself, causes the light entering the eye to focus incorrectly.

Risk Factors Of Myopia

If specific risk factors exist, such as the following, nearsightedness may be more likely to develop:

  • Genetics. Nearsightedness is a hereditary condition that runs in families. If one of your parents is nearsighted, you have an increased chance of developing the condition. The likelihood is higher if both parents are nearsighted.
  • Extended actions performed up close. An increased risk of nearsightedness is associated with extended durations of reading or other close-up activity.
  • Using a display. Studies show that children who spend a lot of time using computers or other smart devices are more likely to develop nearsightedness.
  • Environmental conditions. According to various studies, a lack of outdoor activity may increase the risk of acquiring nearsightedness.

Diagnosis Of Myopia

During a routine eye checkup, nearsightedness is identified. The medical history of your child or yourself, as well as any drugs used, will likely be discussed with you by your eye care professional.

  • The measure of Visual Acuity - An evaluation of your visual acuity measures how clearly you can see far away. The eye doctor wants you to read from an eye chart that has symbols or letters of various sizes and you cover one eye. The opposite eye is next treated in the same manner. For very young children, specific charts are made.
  • Test for Phoroptom - You perform this test while reading an eye chart and gazing through a device with several lenses to assist identify the best prescription to repair vision issues.
  • Other eye health examinations - In addition to these straightforward examinations, your eye doctor will check the following:
    • Your pupils' reaction to light
    • Eye jerking
    • Peripheral vision, or side vision
    • The strain inside your eye
    • The condition of the eyelids, lens, and cornea

Inner-eye examination

The retina and optic nerve will be inspected using a specific lens and light by your eye care professional. Your eyes will likely be dilated with drops by the specialist. The inner eye can be seen more clearly as a result. For a few hours, your eyes will probably be sensitive to light. Put on your own sunglasses or the temporary pair the professional has provided.

Treatment Of Myopia

Both adults and children can have their myopia corrected with glasses or contact lenses. With very few exceptions for children, a variety of refractive procedures can also be used to cure myopia in adults.

If you have myopia, your prescription for glasses or contact lenses is a negative number, such as -3.00. Your lenses will be more durable the higher the number. Your distance vision will improve thanks to the prescription's assistance in helping the eye focus light on the retina.

  • Eyeglasses. Glasses are the most common method used by most people to cure their myopia. You may need to wear glasses every day or only when distant vision is required, depending on the degree of vision correction required. You could simply require glasses for driving.
  • A type of laser eye surgery called photorefractive keratectomy, or PRK for short, is used to correct mild to moderate nearsightedness. It can also be used to treat farsightedness and/or astigmatism. During a PRK operation, your ophthalmologist uses a laser to reshape the cornea's surface, flattening it and enabling light rays to focus on the retina. The ophthalmologist does not cut a flap like in LASIK. Because PRK disturbs less corneal tissue than a comparable LASIK procedure, it is suggested for patients with corneas that are thinner or have a rough surface.
  • Phakic intraocular lenses are an alternative for patients with excessive myopia or whose corneas are too thin for PRK or LASIK.
  • Laser-assisted subepithelial keratectomy is known as LASEK. During a LASEK procedure, the cornea's outermost layer (epithelium) is simply removed. The outer layers of the cornea are then reshaped, and the flap is subsequently closed.
  • In the eye, phakic intraocular lenses are inserted immediately in front of the native lens.
  • Your ophthalmologist can replace the natural lens in your eye with a new one via an intraocular lens implant. Before a cataract form, this surgery is carried out.
  • If your myopia is brought on by focusing muscle spasms, vision therapy may be a possibility. Through eye workouts, you may increase your attention and develop your eye muscles.

Complications Of Myopia

Nearsightedness is associated with a wide range of problems, from small to serious, such as:

  • In school were not good. Children who have myopia or other vision problems may experience delays in learning to read and other academic skills, as well as difficulty with social interaction and low self-esteem.
  • A decline in the quality of life. You could find it challenging to enjoy hobbies or perform everyday tasks effectively if your nearsightedness is not remedied.
  • Eyestrain. Untreated nearsightedness may cause headaches and chronic eye discomfort.
  • Other vision issues. You run a higher risk of developing serious eye disorders like glaucoma, cataracts, and retinal detachment if you have severe nearsightedness.

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