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Bunion: Causes, Symptoms, Risk Factors, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention and Complications

Jan 16, 2024

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Causes Of Bunion

Symptoms Of Bunion

Risk Factors Of Bunion

Diagnosis Of Bunion

Treatment  Of Bunion

Conservative medical care

Surgical options

Prevention Of Bunion

Complications Of Bunion

Bunion Causes, Symptoms, Risk Factors, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention and Complications

A bony protrusion on the big toe joint is called a bunion. A few of the front foot bones moving is the cause of it. The base of your big toe's joint protrudes as the tip is pulled towards the smaller toes. The skin surrounding the bunion can become inflamed and red.

Bunions may develop or worsen as a result of wearing tight, narrow shoes. In addition to foot deformities, physical conditions like arthritis and the natural curves of the foot can cause bunions.

At the joint of your little toe, you could develop little bunionettes, often known as bunions.


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Causes Of Bunion

Though several theories have been put forth, the precise etiology of bunions remains unknown. Most likely a few of the causes are:

  • Hereditary foot type
  • Foot strain or damage
  • Birth defects
  • Experts disagree on whether wearing shoes that are too tight, too thin, or high-heeled simply contributes to the development of bunions.
  • Bunions may be associated with several types of arthritis, particularly inflammatory types like rheumatoid arthritis.

Also Read: Scrotal Masses: Causes, Symptoms, Risk Factors, Diagnosis, Treatment and Complications

Symptoms Of Bunion

The following are the warning signs and symptoms of a bunion:

  • A mass that protrudes close to the base of the big toe redness, swelling, or pain around the big toe joint
  • Calluses, sometimes known as corns, are usually formed where the first and second toes rub against one another. They can cause intermittent or continuous pain, and they can also restrict the range of motion in your big toe.

Also Read: Functional Dyspepsia: Causes, Symptoms, Risk Factors, Diagnosis and Treatment


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Risk Factors Of Bunion

The following conditions may increase your risk of bunions:

  • High heels: Your toes are forced forward into your shoes when you wear high heels, which often jams them.
  • Tight shoes: Individuals who wear shoes that are excessively pointed, thin, or too
  • Rheumatoid arthritis: Bunions may become more likely if you have this inflammatory illness.
  • Genetics: A genetic issue with your foot's anatomy or structure may be the cause of your propensity for bunions.

Also Read: Morton's Neuroma: Causes, Symptoms, Risk Factors, Diagnosis and Treatment

Diagnosis Of Bunion

Your doctor can diagnose a bunion by examining your foot. Your doctor can choose the best course of action with the use of an X-ray of your foot that is done following the physical examination.

Treatment  Of Bunion

Options for treatment change based on how severe your bunion is and how much discomfort it produces.

Conservative medical care

The following non-surgical procedures could ease a bunion's pressure and pain:

  • Changing into new shoes: Put on wide-toed, comfy shoes with lots of room for your toes.
  • Cushioning: Non-prescription, over-the-counter bunion cushions or pads could be beneficial. They can lessen your discomfort by serving as a cushion between your foot and your shoe.
  • Medications: You can manage your bunion pain by taking acetaminophen, ibuprofen, or naproxen sodium . Injections of cortisone may also be helpful.
  • Shoe inserts: Padded shoe inserts can help reduce pain and prevent your bunion from worsening by evenly spreading pressure as you move your feet. While some people require prescription orthotic devices, others find relief with over-the-counter support.
  • Using ice: Ice on your bunion can help relieve discomfort and swelling when it becomes inflamed or after you've been on your feet for a long time. If you experience diminished sensation or circulation problems in your feet, consult your physician before using ice.

Surgical options

If conservative treatment fails to relieve your symptoms, you might need surgery. Surgery is recommended only for persistent pain or when a bunion interferes with daily activities, it is not recommended for cosmetic purposes.

For the treatment of bunions, a variety of surgical procedures are available; no single technique is best in every situation.

Surgery can be used to treat bunions in a single session or across several. They could include:

  • Removing the swollen tissue around your big toe joint
  • Cutting a piece of bone to straighten your big toe
  • One or more forefoot bones must be realigned to a more normal position to fix the improper angle in your big toe joint.
  • Connecting the bones of the affected joint indefinitely
  • After bunion therapy, you may be able to walk on your feet right away. However, it could take a few weeks or months for full healing to occur.
  • You must wear the proper shoes after your injury heals to prevent a recurrence. Most people don't want to wear narrow shoes after surgery.

Also Read: Bladder Exstrophy: Causes, Symptoms, Risk Factors, Diagnosis, Treatment and Complications

Prevention Of Bunion

To help prevent bunions, choose shoes properly. They should have a wide toe box without any pointy toes, and there should be space between the tip of your longest toe and the end of the shoe.

Your shoes shouldn't compress or press on any part of your foot, they should fit your feet like a glove.

Complications Of Bunion

Among the potential bunions' problems are:

  • Bursitis: The tiny fluid-filled pads that cushion the bones next to your joints swell up and cause this excruciating ailment.
  • Hammertoe: Pain and pressure may result from an irregular bend in the middle joint of a toe, typically the toe nearest to your big toe.
  • Metatarsalgia: The ball of your foot swells and hurts as a result of this disease.

Also Read: Adrenal Cancer: Causes, Symptoms, Risk Factors, Diagnosis and Treatment

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