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Brugada Syndrome: Causes, Symptoms, Risk Factors, Complications, Diagnosis And Treatment

Jun 27, 2023

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Causes of Brugada Syndrome

Symptoms of Brugada Syndrome

Risk Factors of Brugada Syndrome

Complications of Brugada Syndrome

Diagnosis of Brugada Syndrome

Treatment of Brugada Syndrome

Brugada Syndrome: Causes, Symptoms, Risk Factors, Complications, Diagnosis And Treatment : Medicine

Brugada syndrome is a rare but potentially fatal cardiac rhythm disorder (arrhythmia), which is occasionally hereditary in origin.

The lower chambers of the heart, known as the ventricles, are more prone to developing abnormal cardiac rhythms in people with Brugada syndrome.

Preventive actions including lowering the temperature and avoiding drugs that can cause arrhythmia are part of the treatment for Brugada syndrome. Some Brugada syndrome sufferers require an implanted cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD), a medical device.

Brugada syndrome frequently has no significant symptoms.

Read this blog further to get a quick overview of this important topic for MEDICINE  to ace your NEET PG exam preparation.

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Causes of Brugada Syndrome

A condition associated with heart rhythm is called Brugada syndrome. Each heartbeat is initiated by an electrical signal produced by unique cells in the right upper chamber of the heart. Each of these cells has a series of microscopic openings called channels that regulate the electrical activity that propels the heartbeat.

An alteration in these channels results in the deadly cardiac rhythm (ventricular fibrillation) in Brugada syndrome, which makes the heart beat fast.

As a result, the heart is unable to adequately pump blood to the body's other organs. A transient, irregular beat could cause fainting. If the abnormal heartbeat doesn't stop, sudden cardiac death can happen.

Brugada syndrome could result from:

  • A structural problem with the heart that may be hard to find.
  • Elevated levels of electrolytes, which aid in the transmission of electrical signals throughout the body,
  • Using cocaine or specific prescription drugs

Symptoms of Brugada Syndrome

Brugada syndrome may show the following signs and symptoms:

  • Dizziness
  • Fainting
  • Breathing that is labored, especially at night
  • Irregular or palpitating heartbeats
  • Incredibly rapid and erratic heartbeat
  • Seizures
  • One of the main signs of Brugada syndrome is an abnormal electrocardiogram (ECG) result, a test that measures the electrical activity of the heart.

Risk Factors of Brugada Syndrome

Brugada syndrome is predisposed by:

  • Brugada syndrome family history- It is common for this illness to be inherited within families. A person's risk of having Brugada syndrome is further increased by having family members who do.
  • Brugada syndrome affects men more commonly than it does women.
  • Race- As opposed to people of other ethnicities, Asians experience Brugada syndrome more commonly.
  • Fever-Brugada syndrome is not brought on by a temperature, although it can irritate the heart in those who have it, especially in youngsters, and lead to fainting or sudden cardiac arrest.

Complications of Brugada Syndrome

Emergency medical attention is necessary for Brugada syndrome complications. The following are complications of Brugada syndrome:

  • Cardiac arrest that occurs suddenly. This sudden loss of breathing, consciousness, and heart function, which frequently happens while you're asleep, is fatal if it isn't treated right away. Survival is feasible with quick, effective medical care.
  • Fainting- Fainting necessitates immediate medical intervention for Brugada syndrome.

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Diagnosis of Brugada Syndrome

If the test results show that the heartbeat is regular, the next step can involve wearing a portable ECG all day and all night. A 24-hour Holter monitor assessment is the name for this kind of examination.

Even though some persons have Brugada syndrome symptoms, their first ECG and 24-hour Holter test findings are within the normal range. These persons might also undergo further ECGs that include tests for drugs administered intravenously that can cause irregular heartbeats.

Echocardiogram- Echocardiography creates images of the heart using sound waves.

Electrophysiology (EP) processes are tested and mapped. This test also referred to as an EP study, may be administered to some people with suspected Brugada syndrome.

A medical expert performs this test by inserting thin, flexible tubes (catheters) with electrode tips into several locations of the heart's blood vessels. The electrodes can show how electrical signals travel throughout the heart when they are in position.

Treatment of Brugada Syndrome

Brugada syndrome treatment aims to prevent ventricular arrhythmias and treat them when they occur because there is no known cure for the condition.

Your therapy can consist of:

  • Isoproterenol.
  • Quinidine.
  • Amiodarone.
  • If you suffer fainting spells, are at high risk for ventricular fibrillation, or if you have survived a cardiac arrest, an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) may be recommended.
  • (In some circumstances) Ablation.

Your doctor might determine that you require an ICD even if you don't have any symptoms based on your family history or test findings. While others may simply treat you when you have symptoms, others may perform frequent follow-ups. Others disagree with this strategy, though, as your first sign could be abrupt cardiac death.

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