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Esthesioneuroblastoma: Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment and Complications

Jan 9, 2024

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Causes Of Esthesioneuroblastoma 

Symptoms Of Esthesioneuroblastoma 

Diagnosis Of Esthesioneuroblastoma 

Treatment Of Esthesioneuroblastoma 

Surgery

Radiation therapy

Chemotherapy

Complications Of Esthesioneuroblastoma 

Esthesioneuroblastoma Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment and Complications

Esthesioneuroblastoma is an uncommon type of cancer that originates in the nasal cavity or upper section of the nose. Olfactory neuroblastoma is an alternate term for esthesioneuroblastoma.

Typically, adults in their 50s and 60s are affected by this malignancy. But any age can experience it. A tumor inside the nose brought on by cell proliferation is frequently the initial stage of esthesioneuroblastoma. It might seep into the brain, eyes, or sinuses. It could spread to other bodily areas.

Individuals suffering from esthesioneuroblastoma may have a loss of smell. They could have bleeding noses. Furthermore, when the tumor enlarges, people could have trouble breathing through their noses.

Surgery is typically used to treat esthesioneuroblastoma. Chemotherapy and radiation are regularly utilized in conjunction with one another during treatment.


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Causes Of Esthesioneuroblastoma 

The exact etiology of esthesioneuroblastoma remains unknown to specialists. Cancer is typically brought on by changes to a cell's DNA. A cell's DNA contains instructions that tell it what to do. The changes give the cells instructions to multiply quickly. The alterations enable the cells to survive when they would have ordinarily died. This results in an excess of cells.

The cells could group to form a tumor-like bulk. The tumor can grow and consume healthy body tissue. Cells may split off and spread to different parts of the body over time.

Also Read: Radiation Enteritis: Causes, Symptoms, Types, Risk Factors, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention and Complications

Symptoms Of Esthesioneuroblastoma 

Esthesioneuroblastoma symptoms include:

  • Loss of sense of smell.
  • Frequent nose bleeding 
  • Breathing via the nose is getting harder.
  • Headaches, ear pain, vision loss, and eye pain may occur when the malignancy spreads.

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Diagnosis Of Esthesioneuroblastoma 

Among the possible diagnoses for esthesioneuroblastoma are:

  • Physical assessment: A member of your medical team may interview you about your symptoms and also perform physical examinations of your head, neck, eyes, and nose.
  • Endoscopic analysis: A thin, flexible tube called an endoscope is inserted into a patient's nose by a medical professional. The camera on the tube allows the doctor to see the malignancy and determine its size.
  • Imaging tests: Imaging tests provide a picture of the body's inside. They can show the precise location, extent, and degree of dissemination of the malignancy. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET), and computed tomography (CT) are examples of imaging exams.
  • Extracting a tissue sample for analysis, or biopsy: The process of taking a tissue sample for analysis in a laboratory is called a biopsy. During a biopsy, a small portion of the cancer may be removed from the nose using a specialized instrument. The doctor's office is where this procedure is typically carried out.
  • Esthesioneuroblastoma diagnosis may be challenging: It is uncommon and may mimic other malignancies of the head, neck, or nose. Testing can determine if the condition is esthesioneuroblastoma and provide more cancer-related information that can aid in the creation of a treatment strategy.

Also Read: RADIOTHERAPY Types| Cancer treatment with Radiation: NEET PG Radiology

Treatment Of Esthesioneuroblastoma 

Treatment for esthesioneuroblastoma usually involves surgery to remove the cancer. Additional treatments include radiation and chemotherapy.

Treatment for esthesioneuroblastoma Usually involves a multidisciplinary team of doctors. The group could be made up of:

  • Surgeons who operate on the nervous system are known as neurosurgeons.
  • Physicians with expertise in head and neck surgery.
  • Medical doctors that use radiation therapy to treat cancer are known as radiation oncologists.
  • Medical oncologists are doctors who use medicine to treat cancer. Oncologists and pediatric surgeons may be part of the team if the patient has a pediatric esthesioneuroblastoma.

Surgery

The tumor's location and size will determine the kind of surgery needed. After surgery, possible outcomes could be:

  • The portion of the tumor is extracted from the nasal cavity. An endoscope, which is a thin, flexible tube, is typically used for this. The surgeon can view the cancer because of the tube's camera. Specialized surgical instruments are placed through the endoscope to remove the tumor and surrounding tissue.
  • A craniotomy is a process of breaking open the skull to remove a tumor. A very tiny portion of the skull must be removed during this process. The surgeon may now remove the brain tumor due to this. Possible dangers following surgery include infections, vision problems, and spinal fluid seeping into the nose.

Also Read: Musculoskeletal Radiology: Bone Tumors

Radiation therapy

Radiation therapy uses high-energy beams to kill cancer cells. The energy may have originated from protons, X-rays, or other sources. Patients with esthesioneuroblastoma often undergo radiation therapy after surgery to eliminate any cancer cells that may have remained in the head and neck.

If surgery is not an option, a combination of radiation and chemotherapy can be used.

Chemotherapy

Chemotherapy uses strong drugs to attack cancer cells. For patients with esthesioneuroblastoma, chemotherapy and radiation therapy may be utilized in addition to surgery to remove any remaining cancerous cells.

Also Read: Why is Radiology the most preferred branch?

Complications Of Esthesioneuroblastoma 

Complications from esthesioneuroblastoma may include:

  • Malignancy that spreads to the surrounding organs and tissues. Esthesioneuroblastoma is capable of metastasizing and invading the sinuses, eyes, and brain.
  • The word for the cancer's spread is metastasis. Esthesioneuroblastoma can spread to other organs and tissues, including the skin, bones, lymph nodes, liver, and lungs.

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