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Fibroadenoma: Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment and Complications

Oct 13, 2023

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Causes Of Fibroadenoma

Symptoms Of Fibroadenoma

Diagnosis Of Fibrodenoma

Imaging tests

Biopsy

Treatment Of Fibroadenoma

When therapy is not necessary

When surgery might be required

Complications Of Fibroadenoma

Fibroadenoma: Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment and Complications

A fibroadenoma is a solid breast mass. This breast mass is not cancerous. The age span from 15 to 35 is where fibroadenomas most frequently occur. However, everyone who gets periods, regardless of age, can develop it.

A fibroadenoma is frequently painless. It could have a rubbery, smooth, and solid texture. Its form is rounded. A pea in the breast represents a possible sensation that could be experienced. Or it could have a flat, coin-like feel. When touched, it moves freely throughout the breast tissue.

Fibroadenomas, or breast lumps, are common. Your doctor may advise you to consistently keep checking out for changes in the shape or texture of your fibroadenoma. It might be necessary to do a biopsy or surgery to remove the lump. Numerous fibroadenomas don't require additional treatment.


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Causes Of Fibroadenoma

There is no known cause of fibroadenomas. The hormones that control your menstrual cycle may be related to them.

The behaviour of less common fibroadenomas and related breast lumps could not be the same as that of more common fibroadenomas. These particular breast masses include:

  • Complex Fibroadenomas: Over time, these fibroadenomas enlarge. They might move or apply pressure to nearby breast tissue.
  • Giant Fibroadenomas: Giant fibroadenomas grow quickly, often exceeding 2 inches (5 cm) in diameter. Furthermore, they might push the nearby breast tissue out of its original position.
  • Phyllodes Tumor: Fibroadenomas and phyllodes tumours are composed of similar components. Under a microscope, phyllodes tumours, however, appear to be different from fibroadenomas. Phyllodes tumours usually display characteristics associated with faster growth. Most phyllodes tumours are benign. They are not cancer as a result of this. Some phyllodes tumours, though, might be malignant. Or, they might develop into cancer. Phyllodes tumours typically are painless

Symptoms Of Fibroadenoma

A solid breast mass known as a fibroadenoma frequently has no pain. It is:

  • Round with clear, smooth boundaries
  • Moved easily
  • Rubbery or firm
  • The growth of a fibroadenoma is frequently slow. The typical size is approximately 1 inch (2.5 centimetres). Over time, a fibroadenoma may enlarge. A few days before your menstruation, it could be uncomfortable or tender. When you touch a large fibroadenoma, it could hurt. But this kind of breast bump rarely hurts.

A single fibroadenoma or many fibroadenomas are both possible. They can affect one or both breasts. Some fibroadenomas reduce with time. Most teenage fibroadenomas disappear over many months to a few years. They then disappear. Over time, fibroadenomas may also change in shape.

Fibroadenomas may get bigger during pregnancy. They might shrink after menopause.


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Diagnosis Of Fibrodenoma

You can see a fibroadenoma for the first time while taking a bath or a shower. Or maybe you'll notice it when doing a breast self-exam. Detecting fibroadenomas can also be done by standard physical exams, screening mammograms, and breast ultrasounds.

If you detect a lump in your breast, you might need specific tests or treatments. You can require various tests, depending on your age and the breast lump's characteristics.

Imaging tests

Imaging tests can reveal the size, shape, and other details of a breast lump:

  • Breast ultrasonography uses sound waves to create images of the inside of the breast. If you're under 30, your doctor will likely use breast ultrasonography to inspect a breast lump. A fibroadenoma's size and shape are very obvious on an ultrasound. This examination can assist in differentiating between a cyst and a solid breast lump. Ultrasonography is painless. Nothing needs to go into your body for this examination.
  • Mammography uses X-rays to provide an image of the breast tissue. This image is a mammogram. It recognises the limits of a fibroadenoma and separates it from neighbouring tissues. Younger patients with fibroadenomas, however, may not respond well to mammography due to their dense breast tissue.

It is more challenging to distinguish between normal breast tissue and possible fibroadenomas in dense tissue. In addition, due to the radiation risk, mammograms are normally not done to check for breast lumps in women under the age of 30.

Biopsy

If there is any doubt regarding the type or nature of the breast lump, a test called a biopsy may be necessary to analyse a sample of tissue. For fibroadenoma biopsies, a core needle biopsy is the standard method.

Radiologists are medical professionals who do core needle biopsies frequently. Using an ultrasound device, the doctor may more precisely direct the needle. The use of a special, hollow needle allows for the removal of a small sample of breast tissue. A lab analysis can be used to identify the type of lump that is present in the sample. To identify whether the sample contains a fibroadenoma or a phyllodes tumour, a pathologist examines it.

If the breast lump is growing quickly, painful, or causing other problems, it might need to be removed. This may also happen if the biopsy results are not clear. A surgeon will have a discussion with you about your options.

Treatment Of Fibroadenoma

Treatment for fibroadenomas is generally not necessary. But occasionally, a rapidly growing fibroadenoma may need to be surgically removed.

When therapy is not necessary

If imaging tests and a biopsy show that your breast lump is a fibroadenoma, you might not need surgery to remove it.

Consider the following while deciding whether to get surgery:

  • After surgery, your breasts' appearance could change.
  • Fibroadenomas can occasionally shrink or go away on their own.
  • Fibroadenomas might remain unchanged.
  • If you decide not to have surgery, your doctor could advise scheduling more appointments to check on the fibroadenoma.
  • During these visits, an ultrasound may be performed to check for changes in the size or shape of the breast lump. In between sessions, let your doctor know if you notice any changes in your breasts.

When surgery might be required

If any concerns are raised by the results of an imaging test or biopsy, your doctor might advise surgery. Additionally, surgery can be required if the fibroadenoma is large, grows quickly, or causes symptoms. Surgery is the recommended treatment for big fibroadenomas and phyllodes tumours.

A fibroadenoma can be removed using several techniques:

  • Removing the fibroadenoma: This procedure is carried out by a surgeon who uses a knife to thoroughly remove the fibroadenoma. This is excision through surgery.
  • Freezing it: In this procedure, the fibroadenoma is reached by inserting a thin, wand-shaped tool beneath the breast skin. When the tool gets cold, the tissue freezes. This results in the removal of the fibroadenoma. This technique is not used in all medical facilities.
  • New fibroadenomas could appear after treatment: If a new breast lump appears, notify your healthcare provider straight away. You could require testing with ultrasound, mammography, or biopsy to ascertain whether the new breast lump is a fibroadenoma or another breast problem.

Complications Of Fibroadenoma

Common fibroadenomas have no impact on your risk of developing breast cancer. Your risk may somewhat increase if you have a complex fibroadenoma or phyllodes tumour, though.

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