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Menstrual Cycle: Phases, Irregularities and Complications: OBGYN

Jun 22, 2023

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Phases Of Menstrual Cycle

Irregularities in Menstrual Cycle

What results in irregular menstrual cycles?

Complications of the Menstrual Cycle

Menstrual Cycle: Phases, Irregularities and Complications: OBGYN

The lining of the uterus sheds each month during menstruation. Menstruation is also called as menses, menstrual period, menstrual cycle, and period. Menstrual blood, which is made up of a mixture of blood and tissue from the uterus, leaves the body through the vagina after leaving the uterus.

Hormones control the onset of menstruation. The body uses hormones as chemical messengers. At specific moments during your menstrual cycle, ovaries, a component of the reproductive system, and the pituitary gland, located in the brain, produce and release specific hormones.

The lining of the uterus becomes thicker as a result of these hormones. This occurs so that an egg can implant into the uterine lining in the event of a pregnancy. Ovaries release an egg (ovulation) as a result of hormones. Your fallopian tubes are the route that the egg takes as it waits for sperm. If a sperm does not fertilize that egg, pregnancy cannot occur. The uterus' lining degrades and sheds and thus menstruation occurs.

The phases of the menstrual cycle are triggered by the increase and fall of hormone levels. Reproductive organs behave in specific ways as a result of your hormones. The precise occurrences during your menstrual cycle are as follows:

Read this blog further to get a quick overview of this important topic Menstrual Cycle: Phases, Irregularities and Complications for OBSTETRICS AND GYNECOLOGY to ace your NEET PG exam preparation.

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Phases Of Menstrual Cycle

  • The menstrual phase- It normally lasts from day one to day five. If pregnancy has not yet taken place, the lining of your uterus sheds via the vagina. The average person bleeds for three to five days, however bleeding that lasts only three days or up to seven days is typically not concerning.
  • The follicular phase- Normally, this period lasts from days six to fourteen. The endometrium, the lining of the uterus, grows and thickens at this time as the hormone estrogen levels rise. Additionally, follicles in ovaries expand as a result of another hormone called follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). Between days 10 and 14, one of the developing follicles will mature into a fully formed egg.
  • Ovulation- In a 28-day menstrual cycle, this phase usually takes place on day 14 or so. The ovary releases an egg when there is a sudden rise in a different hormone called luteinizing hormone (LH). Ovulation is this phenomenon.
  • Luteal Phase- The luteal phase lasts for approximately 15 to 28 days. The egg exits the ovary and starts to make its way to the uterus through your fallopian tubes. To aid in preparing the uterine lining for pregnancy, progesterone levels increase. Pregnancy occurs if egg is fertilized by the sperm and fuses to the uterine wall (implantation). In the absence of pregnancy, estrogen and progesterone levels fall, and the dense uterine lining sheds during periods.

Irregularities in Menstrual Cycle

Any menstrual period that is not regular is referred to as irregular menstruation. An irregular period can look something like this:

  • Intervals of less than 21 days or greater than 35 days.
  • Missing three months' worth (or 90 days) of periods.
  • Exceptionally heavy or mild menstrual flow.
  • Longer than seven-day menstrual bleeding.
  • Intensely painful, crampy, nauseous, or vomiting-inducing periods.
  • In between-period bleeding or spotting.

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What results in irregular menstrual cycles?

Menstrual cycle irregularities can be caused by a number of things, including:

  • Breastfeeding or being pregnant- A missed period is sometimes an indication of pregnancy. 
  • Severe weight loss, exercise addiction, or eating disorders- Extreme weight reduction, increased physical activity, and eating disorders like anorexia nervosa can all interfere with periods.
  • PCOS, or polycystic ovarian syndrome- This widespread condition can cause irregular periods in its victims. They may also have larger ovaries, each of which has a few fluid-filled sacs known as follicles.  During an ultrasound examination, these follicles might be observed. In comparison to other people, those who have PCOS frequently have more follicles in their ovaries. 
  • Premature Ovarian Failure- The lack of usual ovarian function before the age of 40 is referred to as premature ovarian failure. Primary ovarian insufficiency is another name for this illness and it can cause years of irregular or infrequent menstruation.
  • PID, or pelvic inflammatory disorder-  In this condition unusual menstrual bleeding may result from an infection of the reproductive organs.
  • Uterine fibroids- Growths in the uterus known as uterine fibroids but these are not cancerous. These fibroids can result in heavy and protracted menstrual cycles.

OBGYN Related articles:

Cervical Carcinoma: Causes, Symptoms, and TreatmentHYSTERECTOMTY: Indications,ClassificationMenstrual Problems and Precocious Puberty in Young Girls
Infections In Pregnancy (types, causes, and treatment)EMERGENCY CONTRACEPTION - NEET PG OBGYNAmenorrhea: Primary and Secondary

Complications of the Menstrual Cycle

  • Premenstrual Syndrome- Women who have premenstrual syndrome (PMS) are susceptible to a number of unfavorable side effects, including fluid retention, headaches, exhaustion, and irritability.
  • Dysmenorrhoea- For those who experience dysmenorrhoea, or painful periods, two therapeutic options are exercise and dietary changes. The uterus is thought to contract more vigorously than necessary in response to some hormones in order to release the lining. 
  • Menorrhagia- Painkillers and the oral contraceptive pill can be used to treat heavy menstrual bleeding, also known as menorrhagia, which if left untreated can result in anemia. 
  • Amenorrhea- For amenorrhea or the absence of menstrual cycles, there are oral contraceptives and a hormonal intrauterine device (IUD). This is recognized as abnormal, with the exception of pre-puberty, pregnancy, nursing, and postmenopause. 

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