Ultimate NEET-PG Exam Study Material

Proven Effective Content with 96% Strike Rate

Hernia: Causes, Types, Symptoms, Risk Factors, Diagnosis and Treatment

Mar 18, 2024

Navigate Quickly

Where do hernias most frequently occur?

Which of the many types of hernias are these?

Which signs accompany hernias?

How may one get a hernia?

Which symptoms appear first in cases with hernias?

Do the symptoms of a hernia in women and men vary?

Which variables put a person at risk of developing a hernia?

What adverse consequences may someone have from a hernia?

If I have a hernia, when should I be concerned?

How is a hernia diagnosed?

To what extent is a hernia treated?

hernia

A part of your internal organs protruding from a tear or weakness in the surrounding muscle or tissue is known as a hernia. Most hernias are the result of an abdominal organ pushing through one of the walls of the abdominal cavity.

 As you age, the persistent strain and strain on your muscles might lead to the progressive formation of hernias. They could also result from surgery, an accident, or a congenital abnormality.


PrepLadder 6.0

Where do hernias most frequently occur?

A potential hernia is:

  • Via your lower chest's diaphragm.
  • Via your groin, via the wall of your lower abdomen.
  • Along the anterior midline of your abdomen.
  • Via a cut made during a prior abdominal procedure. 

Also Read: Spermatocele: Causes, Symptoms, Risk Factors, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention and Complications

Which of the many types of hernias are these?

Specific types of hernias include:

  • Inguinal Hernia. The most common type of hernia, accounting for 75% of cases, is the inguinal variation. The majority of people afflicted are men or those designated male at birth (AMAB). They happen when part of your colon presses on the inguinal canal, a hole in your inner thigh.
  • Femoral Hernia. A femoral hernia is a less common type of groin hernia that occurs in the femoral canal, which is situated underneath the inguinal canal. Fat-rich tissue may bulge out.
  • Hiatal Hernia. A hiatal hernia is another common type of hernia that occurs during when the diaphragm widens, the top of your stomach pushes up through the opening into your chest, making room for your esophagus to pass through.
  • Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia. Congenital diaphragmatic hernias are serious birth defects caused by the diaphragm's incomplete shutting during fetal development. The abdominal organs may slip up into the chest cavity and jam the lungs because the organs are still growing.
  • Incisional Hernia. When tissue pushes through an abdominal wall incision that was previously created but gradually weakened, it might result in an incisional hernia. It is a common side effect following abdominal surgery
  • Umblical Hernia. An umbilical hernia occurs when a section of your intestine pushes through a hole in your abdominal wall close to your belly button. Hernias that are congenital mean that they exist from birth.
  • Venteral Hernia. A ventral hernia is a hernia that goes through the front wall of your abdomen. Included are umbilical and incisional hernias. "Epigastric hernia" is the term used to describe a ventral hernia above the belly button.
  • A perineal Hernia. A perineal hernia may occur from tissue or organs pushing through a weak spot or hole in your pelvic floor and into your abdominal cavity. It is unusual to have these hernias.

Also Read: Anal Itching: Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment

Which signs accompany hernias?

Different hernia types can cause different symptoms, and not all hernias cause symptoms. One of the most evident symptoms of a hernia is a palpable lump or bulge that appears during certain activities or in certain physical postures and recedes at other times. Other symptoms that you could feel as the hernia comes out include pressure, a dull ache, or pinching. It can come out when you laugh, cough, stretch, or elevate anything.

Also Read: Peripheral Artery Disease: Causes, Symptoms, Risk Factors, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention and Complications

How may one get a hernia?

When it's apparent, it looks like a bulge where none ought to be. There are two usual places: your midsection or the top of your inner thigh. It could be obvious at times, but not always. Some hernias are too deep to be seen from the outside, such as femoral and hiatal hernias.

Also Read: Solitary Rectal Ulcer Syndrome: Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment

Which symptoms appear first in cases with hernias?

There may be a specific location where a hernia rupture may be felt or seen as you squat, lean over, or push oneself. Your baby may be cranky about the emergence of a hernia, which you may detect when they cry or pee. If the same action causes the same symptoms on a regular basis, it's definitely a hernia.

Also Read: Popliteal Artery Entrapment Syndrome: Causes, Symptoms, Risk Factors, Diagnosis, Treatment and Complications

Do the symptoms of a hernia in women and men vary?

Not in the majority of situations, although some do. For example, sometimes a groin hernia descends into your genitalia. It may cause considerable scrotal hypertrophy in people with testicles. Women or individuals who were assigned the gender "female" at birth are more likely to have femoral hernias, which can cause mild, unexplained discomfort in the groin (AFAB).

Also Read: Dumping Syndrome: Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment

Which variables put a person at risk of developing a hernia?

An increased risk of developing a hernia might be associated with:

  • Heavy lifting
  • Allergy or a chronic cough that causes a chronic sneezing fit.
  • Enduring constipation and trouble urinating or passing gas.
  • An experience with abdominal or pelvic surgery.
  • Expecting a child, especially more than one.
  • Chronic obesity defined as a body mass index [BMI] more than thirty. 

Your child's risk of developing a congenital hernia at birth may be increased if they:

Also Read: Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumours: Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment

What adverse consequences may someone have from a hernia?

Problems usually arise from a hernia that becomes stuck and cannot be released. The discomfort and severity of an imprisoned hernia might get worse. It may become obstructed and unable to pass food or gas if your colon is congested. When tissue is strangled, blood supply to the imprisoned area is cut off, leading to tissue death (necrosis or gangrene).

There are specific problems with diaphragmatic hernias. Usually, organs that herniate through your diaphragm do not get stuck. Persistent acid reflux is the only significant issue linked to a hiatal hernia. On the other hand, because of its impact on the development of the embryonic organs, a congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is always complicated. Newborns with congenital cardiac hypertrophy (also known as CDH) need intensive care.

If I have a hernia, when should I be concerned?

If you are uncomfortable with your hernia, consult your physician. A medical practitioner should identify hernia discomfort since it can be mistaken for several other conditions. See a doctor right immediately if you experience symptoms such as fever, nausea, or vomiting, or if your hernia becomes numb or changes color.

Also Read: Rectovaginal Fistula: Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment and Complications

How is a hernia diagnosed?

A simple physical examination can often be enough to diagnose a hernia, depending on its kind. Your healthcare provider may be able to see or feel it, or they may ask you to cough or shift positions, which might make it obvious. They will attempt to physically lessen it and let it to re-enter in order to determine how serious it is. Certain hernias may require a CT scan or other soft tissue imaging method to be diagnosed.

Also Read: Renal Artery Stenosis: Causes, Symptoms, Risk Factors, Diagnosis, Treatment and Complications

To what extent is a hernia treated?

Surgery is usually necessary to repair most hernias, however, it's not always done right away. Your doctor may want to wait and observe whether your moderate or small hernia worsens noticeably if it just sometimes protrudes. Doctors recommend having hernias fixed since they have a propensity to worsen over time. They do not heal on their own, except infantile umbilical hernias.

Hernia treatment often involves surgery, which is a straightforward procedure unless there are complications. To reinforce the barrier that the herniated tissue pushed through and put it back into place, your surgeon will use surgical mesh or sutures. 

Surgeons can often use minimally invasive methods for a standard hernia repair, which leads to smaller incisions, less pain during surgery, and a faster recovery.

In laparoscopic surgery, a laparoscope,a long, thin tube with a lighted camera on the end is used to examine the operation site. The laparoscope fits through one tiny hole, and long, thin surgical tools fit through another. Hernia repairs are also handled by similar robotic surgery, however, in this case, the tools are controlled by a computer panel and the physician utilizes robotic arms. For some hernias, open surgery could be required.

A congenital umbilical hernia normally heals on its own as your child grows, but sometimes it doesn't. In this case, your child will need an umbilical hernia repaired. A hiatal hernia usually doesn't need to be corrected, although it could if acid reflux is present all the time. Your doctor could suggest a Nissen fundoplication to resolve this problem. The upper stomach and lower esophagus are sewn together during the surgery.

Also Read: Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease: Causes, Symptoms, Risk Factors, Diagnosis, Treatment and Complications

Download the PrepLadder app now and unlock a 24-hour FREE trial of premium high-yield content. Access Video Lectures, digital notes, QBank, and Mock Tests for FREE to ace your NEET PG preparation. Elevate your study experience and gear up for success. Start your journey with PrepLadder today!


Rapid Revision 5.0

Auther Details

PrepLadder Medical

Get access to all the essential resources required to ace your medical exam Preparation. Stay updated with the latest news and developments in the medical exam, improve your Medical Exam preparation, and turn your dreams into a reality!

Top searching words

The most popular search terms used by aspirants

  • NEET PG Strategy
  • Surgery NEET PG