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Trimodal Mortality Model For Trauma - NEET PG Surgery

Feb 06, 2023


Trauma deaths are described using a trimodal pattern. A trimodal distribution of trauma deaths describes three peaks of deaths following trauma: immediate, early and late deaths. Let’s learn all the important details of this topic in the blog below. 

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The table below describes the trimodal distribution of trauma deaths.

Immediate death

 (Occurs within minutes of injury)

Early death 

(Occurs within hours of arrival into hospital)

Late death 

(Occurs day to week after injury)

  • Declared dead at the scene 
  • Die shortly after arrival to hospital 


  • Irreversible brain injury
  • Hemorrhage from injuries of 
  • Heart 
  • Aorta
  • Liver 
  • Lungs 
  • Pelvic fracture 


  • Intracranial hemorrhage 
  • Internal hemorrhage involving respiratory system & abdominal organs 
  • Multiple injuries leading to massive blood loss 
  • Tension pneumothorax
  • Cardiac tamponade 


  • Sepsis (MC)
  • Multiple organ failure 


Triage refers to categorizing patients on the basis of the severity of their injuries and by extension, the urgency and need for care.                                                         

  • Used during mass casualties 
  • It involves prioritizing victims into categories based on 
    • Severity of injury 
    • Likelihood of survival 
    • Urgency of care 

Also Read: High Yield Topics for Surgery


Triage TAGS

Victims involved in a mass casualty incident are categorized using triage tags into different categories as per their treatment needs.

Following color codes are used to identify patient categorization:

  1. Red (immediate) – Most critical injury patients 
  • Head injury
  • Injury to thorax or abdomen 
  • Immediate care is required 
  1. Yellow (Delayed)- Less critically injured patients
  • Patient’s require in hospital treatment 
  1. Green (ambulatory patient) – No life or limb threatening injury 
  1. Black (expectant) – dead or moribund patients 
Color code

Related PYQ

Match the following categories of triage AIIMS NOV 2018

Red Yellow Green Black No life or limb threatening injuries Immediate care is reqLess critically injured Dead or moribund patients Most critically injured Require in hospital treatment 
  1. 1-B;2C,F;3-A;4-D
  2. 1-B;2C,F;3-A;E;4-D
  3. 1-B;2C,F;3-A;4-D,E
  4. 1-B, E;2-C;3-A;4-D,F

Ans: A


  • In Trauma (According to ATLS)
  • ABCD (Airway Breathing Circulation Disability Exposure & environment control)
  • In ACLS/ BLS
  • CAB (Circulation Airway Breathing)

We hope this blog helped you understand the Trimodal Mortality Model for Trauma better. Stay tuned to cover all the important topics for NEET PG exam preparation with our crisp and concise NEET PG Medicine Notes. Make sure to download the PrepLadder app to enhance your preparations.

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