Jun 22, 2023
The immunological condition known as autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) is very uncommon. In this condition, the body attacks red blood cells because it believes they are foreign objects, which leads to this disease. A blood transfusion is an uncommon kind of treatment, in addition to medication and surgery. Even while AIHA is very treatable, it can be devastating if ignored. so the patient should be treated right away.
Read this blog further to get a quick overview of this important topic for PATHOLOGY to ace your NEET PG exam preparation.
Warm autoimmune hemolytic anemia and cold autoimmune hemolytic anemia are the two main subtypes of this condition. The type of antibodies that are implicated in the disease determines this classification.
Warm autoimmune hemolytic anemia is the most prevalent form of AIHA, which is caused by IgG antibodies, which bind red blood cells when the body temperature is normal. In most cases, symptoms develop gradually over several weeks. They can, however, sometimes appear within a few days.
In this condition, IgM autoantibodies are involved in 10% to 20% of cases. When your blood is at lower temperatures than your body's core temperature, the antibodies bind red blood cells. The minimum temperature at which a cold autoantibody will bind varies widely.
There are many similarities between the symptoms of AIHA and other types of anemia. You might have
Depending on the sort of AIHA you have, several symptoms vary. Other symptoms of cold antibody hemolytic anemia include:
Autoimmune diseases like lupus can cause autoimmune hemolytic anemia. Typically, our immune system produces proteins known as antibodies to kill foreign invaders like bacteria and viruses as soon as it detects them. When you have AIHA, your immune system produces antibodies that inadvertently target your own red blood cells for destruction.
Autoimmune hemolytic anemia can be brought on by several conditions and drugs. Here are a few of them:
A doctor will inquire about your symptoms and perform a physical checkup. To aid with the diagnosis, they may then conduct some blood and urine tests.
A protein called hemoglobin transports oxygen throughout the body. Red blood cells' hematocrit value reveals how much room they occupy. Both can show signs of anemia in low doses.
Sometimes it can be helpful to understand why the disorder is developing to determine whether there are warm or cold agglutinins.
Warm agglutinins may appear in:
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Your doctor will first address the underlying condition that's causing anemia, such as lupus. If a drug is the culprit, you'll probably need to stop taking it. If your AIHA is minor, treatment might not be necessary.
Steroids like hydrocortisone or prednisone are frequently the first medications prescribed by doctors to halt the immune system from attacking your red blood cells. The drug rituximab may enhance the effects of steroids.
You might require surgery to have your spleen removed if things don't get better. The majority of red blood cell oxidation happens there.
To suppress the immune system, one can take medications like azathioprine (Imuran) and cyclophosphamide (Cytoxan).
You could require a blood transfusion.
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