Mar 15, 2023
Also called Floppy valve syndrome or Barlow syndrome. During the phase of systole , when the left ventricular will generate tremendous amount of pressure that will cause blood to rush into aorta, there will be a lot of pressure on the mitral valve leaflets. The bicuspid mitral valve however able to retain its position because of chordae tendineae and papillary muscles.
In this post, we have covered this important medicine topic briefly for the NEET PG exam preparations. Read on.
In mitral valve prolapse because of the defective coaptation of the valve leaflet, there is upward bulging of the valve that cause undue stress on chordae tendineae and papillary muscles, which cause ischaemia of sub adjacent myocardium.
Due to undue stress occurring on the chordae tendineae, auscultatory finding created is called mid systolic clicks
Due to extra tension generated on the chordae tendineae during excessive bulging up of mitral valve.
Incase there is snapping of chordae tendineae, there will be incompetent valve. Left ventricular will be decompressing into left atria,mitral regurgitation will occur. During the phase of ventricular systole, a particular amount of blood will leaks into lumen of left atrium. This would result in structural damage in the left atria, and possibility of left ventricular failure and pulmonary edema will occur.
The patient blood will back up into the pulmonary circulation and will develop features like orthopnae and paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea
In Western population Mitral valve prolapse is the number one cause of the development of the mitral regurgitation
Why Mitral valve prolapse is in the first place?
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Asymtomatic (most common) in the beginning, but as the disease will progress, it will cause palpitations, syncopal attacks, orthopnoea, paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnoea
Premature ventricular contractions
There is also a possibility of broad complex ventricular tachycardia
Even PSVT (Paroxysmal Supraventricular Tachycardia)
Because of this condition , there is leakage of blood from LV to LA that cause structural damage to LA, on the long run can trigger atrial fibrillation
On squatting the murmur will become shorter and on standing it will become relatively longer
Echocardiography- posterior leaflets are affected more than the anterior leaflets. If the posterior leaflets is defective, jet of blood moves anteriorly, murmur radiates to the base of the heart. If the anterior leaflets is defective, jet of blood moves posteriorly, murmur radiated to axilla/ back
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