Jun 01, 2023
Hormones that control growth, physical and sexual development, and other endocrine glands are released by the anterior (front) lobe of the pituitary gland. Other endocrine glands will over- or under-produce particular hormones as a result of the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland's over- or under-secretion of certain hormones.
Read this blog further to get a quick overview of this important topic for medicine and ace your NEET PG exam preparation.
It occurs due to excess Growth hormone (GH) after puberty. Somatotrophs also known as growth hormones are most abundant cells present in the pituitary.
Causes of Acromegaly are :
These drugs act by blocking the SSTR 2 and SSTR 5 receptors which are receptors for growth hormones thus help in decreasing growth hormone production. These drugs show significant improvement and are given in the form of Monthly injections as prescribed.
After surgery, the first thing that improves is soft tissue swelling immediately. Aggressive surgery in patients leads to hypopituitarism. In less aggressive surgery, recurrence of tumor can occur.
PEGVISOMANT is given in the case of recurrence or if poor response to somatostatin receptor ligand analogues. It blocks the growth hormone receptors thus helping in reducing the growth hormone level.
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It is the cause of non-obstetric damage occurring to the anterior pituitary. It is mainly seen in patients with hypertension and sickle cell disease.
It implies only when there is growth hormone. It is Seen mainly in the pediatric population.
Investigation of choice is Insulin tolerance test / Arginine challenge test. Insulin tolerance tests are slightly risky because it triggers hypoglycemia.
Growth hormone injections (DNA Recombinant technology) are given till Puberty.
It is the most common Functioning pituitary tumor. Overall most common Pituitary Tumor is a non-functioning Tumor. Prolactin has an inhibitory effect on LH and FSH.
A rare disorder known as empty sella syndrome (ESS) causes problems with the contents of the sella turcica, causing your pituitary gland to flatten or shrink. Your pituitary gland is surrounded and shielded by the sella turcica, a bony structure at the base of your brain.
A saddle-like chamber called the sella turcica. The Latin term for it is "Turkish seat." Hormonal imbalances, recurrent headaches, and changes in eyesight are some of the symptoms of ESS.
A little gland called the pituitary is situated beneath the hypothalamus at the base of the brain. It is a component of your endocrine system and is responsible for producing a wide range of critical hormones. These hormones have an impact on and regulate many endocrine glands in your body.
Chronic headaches are arguably the most typical symptom of empty sella syndrome (ESS). Researchers are unsure, meanwhile, whether headaches are a direct result of ESS or merely coincidental. Numerous ESS sufferers have high blood pressure (hypertension), which, in severe cases, can also result in headaches.
Due to pituitary gland damage from ESS, hormonal abnormalities are frequently experienced. Depending on whatever hormone(s) are impacted, people with ESS may have a variety of symptoms. Any of the symptoms listed below could indicate ESS:
Rarely, those who have empty sella syndrome may exhibit the following signs and symptoms:
The empty sella syndrome is caused either due to primary empty sella or secondary empty sella
Primary empty sella (PES) is a condition when your pituitary gland is pressed against the sella turcica by one of the arachnoid layers covering the surface of your brain.
Primary empty sella syndrome's actual cause is still a mystery to medical professionals.
According to one idea, primary empty sella develops when there is a chance that cerebrospinal fluid will enter the sella turcica and flatten your pituitary gland due to a congenital abnormality in the tissue lining your brain. While the pituitary gland itself may be difficult to spot on an imaging scan, it almost always functions normally and prevents empty sella syndrome in these circumstances.
When your pituitary gland or the sella turcica is somehow harmed as a result of another condition or incident, secondary empty sella (SES) occurs. Due to this, a variety of factors might result in SES. The following are the common causes of damage:
The following imaging techniques are used by providers to diagnose ESS:
To evaluate your hormone levels, your doctor could request additional testing, such as blood tests. Occasionally, medical professionals may carry out the following procedures to see if your brain has increased pressure:
An ophthalmologist will examine your retina, the layer of tissue at the back of your eye.
Spinal tap (lumbar puncture).
If your doctor did imaging tests and found an empty sella but your pituitary gland is still functioning correctly, you won't need therapy. This is the condition most frequently.
Empty sella syndrome (ESS), which impairs pituitary gland function, is typically treated with medication that corrects abnormal hormone levels, depending on which hormones are involved.
If ESS is producing cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrhea, you could need surgery to repair your sella turcica.
When adrenal glands don't produce enough of the hormone cortisol, person suffers from adrenal crisis. It is a potentially fatal side effect of Addison's disease (adrenal insufficiency).
Almost every organ and tissue in your body is impacted by cortisol. Some of its features are:
An adrenal crisis could be brought on by the stimuli listed below:
Many of the symptoms are similar to those of other prevalent diseases, an adrenal crisis may be challenging to identify. However, the subsequent examinations can assist your doctor in correctly diagnosing an adrenal crisis:
An intravenous (IV) injection of hydrocortisone (hydrocortisone phosphate or hydrocortisone sodium succinate) and saline solution will be given by your healthcare practitioner right away into a vein in your arm or hand. Cortisol is replaced by the injection of hydrocortisone.
Your healthcare professional may prescribe antibiotics if a bacterial infection is the root cause of your adrenal crisis.
Any further symptoms of your adrenal crisis may also be treated by your healthcare provider. Water, sports drinks, or coconut water may be used as therapies for electrolyte imbalance or dehydration. Treatment for hypoglycemia may involve eating carbs.
Your healthcare professional will do ACTH stimulation tests to identify the cause of your adrenal crisis if you have never experienced one before.
When the adrenal cortex is harmed and the adrenal glands don't produce enough cortisol and aldosterone, Addison's disease develops.The body's response to stressful events is controlled by cortisol. Regulation of potassium and sodium is aided by aldosterone. Androgens, or sex hormones, are also produced by the adrenal cortex.
Following are explained some symptoms of addison's disease
Your medical history and the symptoms you've been having will be discussed with you by your doctor. They will do a physical examination and perhaps request certain laboratory tests to measure your salt and potassium levels.
Therapy that replaces corticosteroids (steroid) is widely utilised as a method of treatment. Corticosteroid drugs take the place of the aldosterone and cortisol your body no longer produces. It is frequently taken as a pill two or three times a day.
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