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Atypical Hyperplasia Of Breast: Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment and Complications

Feb 5, 2024

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Causes Of Atypical Hyperplasia Of Breast

Symptoms Of Atypical Hyperplasia Of Breast

Diagnosis Of Atypical Hyperplasia Of Breast

Treatment Of Atypical Hyperplasia Of Breast

Screening tests for breast cancer

Annual Mammography Screening

Participate In Trials

Complications Of Atypical Hyperplasia Of Breast

Atypical Hyperplasia Of Breast

Atypical hyperplasia is a precancerous illness that affects the breast cells. Atypical hyperplasia is the accumulation of abnormal cells in the lobules and milk ducts of the breast.

Atypical hyperplasia is not malignancy; it is merely a risk factor for breast cancer. If atypical hyperplasia cells persist in accumulating in the milk ducts or lobules and become increasingly aberrant during your life, they may progress to become either invasive breast cancer or noninvasive breast cancer (carcinoma in situ).

If you have an atypical hyperplasia diagnosis, you will eventually be at a higher risk of developing breast cancer. For this reason, doctors often recommend both medication and extensive screening to reduce the risk of breast cancer.


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Causes Of Atypical Hyperplasia Of Breast

Atypical hyperplasia's etiology is unclear. Atypical hyperplasia is the result of changes in the quantity, size, shape, growth pattern, and appearance of breast cells. There are two different types of atypical hyperplasia:

  • Atypical ductal hyperplasia: The abnormal cells in the breast ducts are called "atypical ductal hyperplasia".
  • Atypical lobular hyperplasia: it is the term used to describe abnormal cells found within the breast lobules.

Atypical hyperplasia is thought to be a part of the complex process of cell transformation that accumulates and ultimately results in breast cancer. The progression of breast cancer typically results in the following:

  • Hyperplasia: The process begins when interference with normal cell growth and development results in an excess of cells that resemble normal cells (hyperplasia).
  • Atypical hyperplasia: The extra cells begin to appear weird as they stack on top of one another.
  • Cancer in situ (noninvasive): The abnormal cells continue to proliferate and undergo mutations, ultimately leading to in situ cancer—a form of cancer in which the cancer cells remain within the milk ducts.
  • Invasive cancer: The abnormal cells multiply inside the duct and eventually develop into malignant cells. Invasive cancer typically spreads to surrounding lymphatic channels, blood vessels, or tissue.

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Symptoms Of Atypical Hyperplasia Of Breast

Atypical hyperplasia usually presents with no symptoms at all.

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Diagnosis Of Atypical Hyperplasia Of Breast

Usually, atypical hyperplasia is found after a clinical breast examination or after a biopsy to evaluate a suspicious area seen on an imaging test, like ultrasound or mammography.

Your physician may recommend surgery to remove a larger sample of tissue so that atypical hyperplasia may be examined more thoroughly and breast cancer can be ruled out. If atypical hyperplasia is found, a surgical biopsy (broad local excision or lumpectomy) might be required to remove all of the affected tissue. The pathologist looks over the larger specimen to look for signs of invasive or in situ cancer.

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Treatment Of Atypical Hyperplasia Of Breast

Atypical hyperplasia is usually treated with surgery to remove the abnormal cells and make sure the area is free of any invasive or in situ cancer. More comprehensive screenings for the disease as well as the use of medications to reduce your risk of breast cancer are often recommended by doctors.

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Screening tests for breast cancer

It's conceivable that your physician will suggest that you have a breast cancer screening. This may increase the chance of early breast cancer discovery when there is a greater chance of a cure. Talk about the options for breast cancer screening with your doctor. Among your options are:

To get to know one's breasts and recognise any unusual changes, self-examinations for breast awareness are essential. A clinical breast exam performed annually by your healthcare provider.

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Annual Mammography Screening

Your other risk factors will determine if you require further breast cancer screening techniques like molecular breast imaging or breast MRIs. What your doctor may advise you to take to lower your risk of breast cancer is:

Utilize medication for prevention. Tamoxifen or raloxifene are examples of selective estrogen receptor modulators that can lower the risk of breast cancer if used for five years. These medications function by inhibiting the binding of estrogen to its receptors in breast tissue. In certain types of breast cancer, estrogen is thought to be involved.

For women who are not yet menopausal, tamoxifen is the only medication that has been approved. An additional option for ladies who have gone through menopause could be aromatase inhibitors, such as exemestane and anastrozole, which decrease the production of estrogen in the body.

Menopausal hormone therapy should not be used. The risk of breast cancer after menopause is increased by the combination of estrogen and progestin combination hormone therapy for menopausal symptoms, according to research. Many breast tumors grow mostly because of hormones.

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Participate In Trials

New treatments that are not yet widely available but may help reduce the risk of breast cancer associated with atypical hyperplasia are assessed in clinical trials. Consult your doctor to see whether you are eligible for any clinical trials.

Consider a mastectomy as a preventive (risk-reducing) measure. If your risk of breast cancer is very high, you may be a candidate for a risk-reducing mastectomy, which entails removing one or both breasts.

You can be classified as having an extremely high risk of developing breast cancer if you have a genetic mutation in one of the breast cancer genes or if there is a significant family history of the disease.

But not everyone ought to undergo this treatment. Discuss this risk-reducing procedure's benefits, drawbacks, and limitations with your doctor in light of your particular circumstances.

If there is a significant family history of breast cancer, consulting a genetic counselor to determine your risk of carrying a genetic mutation and the possible benefit of genetic testing may be helpful.

Make healthy choices for your way of living. By making wise choices in your daily life, you can lower your risk of breast cancer. Exercise frequently, maintain a healthy weight, give up smoking, and, if you wish to drink alcohol, do so in moderation are a few examples.

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Complications Of Atypical Hyperplasia Of Breast

If you have been diagnosed with atypical hyperplasia, your future risk of developing breast cancer is elevated. Compared to people without hyperplasia, those with atypical hyperplasia had an approximately four-fold higher risk of developing breast cancer. The hazards associated with atypical lobular hyperplasia and atypical ductal hyperplasia are similar.

Researchers found that women with atypical hyperplasia had an increased risk of breast cancer over time:

  • Five years after being diagnosed, about 7% of women with atypical hyperplasia will get breast cancer. Put another way, five years after being diagnosed with atypical hyperplasia, seven out of every 100 women are expected to get breast cancer. Furthermore, 93 persons will not be diagnosed with breast cancer.
  • Ten years after being diagnosed with atypical hyperplasia, 13% of women will get breast cancer. This suggests that 13 out of 100 women should anticipate developing breast cancer ten years after being diagnosed with atypical hyperplasia. Moreover, 87 will not develop breast cancer.
  • After being diagnosed with atypical hyperplasia, about 30% of women may go on to get breast cancer 25 years later. Put differently, it is estimated that, 25 years after being diagnosed with atypical hyperplasia, 30 out of every 100 women will get breast cancer. Nor will any of the seventy develop breast cancer.

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