The major affected area is the pons and the lateral medulla region.
If it is a right-sided lesion, it will affect nerve number 5, number 7, and the Nucleus ambiguous will be compromised on the same side of face & contralateral side of body.
Some insight into the right-sided Wallenberg syndrome:
It is the cause of the injury of the spinothalamic tract.
There will be ipsilateral Horner's syndrome because the Hypothalamo spinal pathway is compromised.
Spinal Sensory nucleus of the trigeminal is compromised there will be an Ipsilateral sensory alteration of pain and temperature.
Due to the spinothalamic tract compromise, the body will experience a contralateral alteration of pain and temperature.
In the right-sided Wallenberg syndrome, the right side of the face will be affected, and the left side of the body will be affected.
Therefore it is called alternating hemi-anesthesia.
They will also be ipsilateral cerebellar ataxia.
There is right-sided thalamus and the left-sided thalamus
Under them, there is a hypothalamus on both the side(1st order neuron)
Below them, there will be the brainstem
Under the brainstem, there is the spinal cord
An H-shaped gray matter called the Posterior Horn cell.
The pain and temperature of the body are controlled by the free nerve ending.
The first-order neuron will be in the dorsal ganglion.
The second-order neuron will be in the posterior horn cell.
These neurons transfer the nerve fibers through the Contra-lateral pathway passing the spinal cord and the lateral medulla up-to the lateral thalamus (Ventroposterior lateral nucleus of Thalamus)
There will be ischemia in the lateral medulla.
It is also called the Spinal lemniscus
In the case of an injury to this area, there will be a Contralateral effect on the body.
The Spinal sensory nucleus of the trigeminal nucleus that enters the spinal cord carries the pain and temperature of the body on the same side. Therefore, there will be an Ipsilateral alteration of pain and temperature on the same side of the face.
There will be an experience of the right-sided Horner syndrome.
It is associated with the hypothalamus pathway.
The T1 spinal segment of the spinal cord connecting the hypothalamus on the right side is injured.
It is also called the lateral horn cell of the spinal cord.
Moreover, it will cause an injury to the nucleus. This will cause ipsilateral paralysis, causing difficulty in speech and swallowing.
The nucleus tractus solitarius will be injured, which will cause the loss of taste on the same half of the tongue.
In the case of vestibular nucleus injury, the patient will suffer from Vertigo.
In the case of the 12th nerve nucleus, there will be partial tongue palsy. The medial lemniscus is also involved.
The inferior olive is present in the medulla and gives out crossing Olivocerebellar fibers.
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